The Eastern state of Maryland is home to a wide variety of terrestrial and marine mammals. In this article I look at almost one hundred mammals that live in the state of Maryland.
There are almost one hundred different species of mammals living in Maryland. From small, rare species such as the Delmarva fox squirrel to the enormous blue whale, the varied habitats of Maryland are host to a wide variety of species.
For more information on all the species of mammals that live in the state of Maryland, please read on.
Maryland does not have a state mammal. However, the Chesapeake Bay Retriever is the official state dog of Maryland.
The Allegheny woodrat is a nocturnal rodent from the eastern part of the United States. Their color is mostly brownish-gray, and the underbody and feet are white.
The Allegheny woodrat measures from 31 to 45 cm (including the tail) and weigh about 450 g. This herbivore eats buds, fruits, seeds, leaves, stems, roots, acorns, nuts, and stems.
The Allegheny woodrat lives in rocky areas (cliffs and caves) in deciduous forests. Their lifespan is three years in the wild.
The Allegheny woodrat is becoming an endangered species. They are very destructive and carry many diseases.
The North American beaver can reach up to 32 kg, with 20 kilograms being the average weight. They can measure 74-90cm, excluding the tail which adds a further 25-30 cm.
They beaver is the largest rodent in North America and are semi-aquatic. They have a transparent third eyelid allowing them to see underwater.
Beavers play an important role in the environment and are a keystone species. They are well known for building dams, canals, and lodges. They construct dams to flood areas to obtain access to food and protection.
They live in colonies, and have orange teeth due to the amount of iron they contain. This makes their teeth stronger than regular teeth.
The beaver is a herbivore and eats bark, cambium, roots, buds, and water plants. The North American beaver lives in forests (near water bodies) in the northern parts of North America, with a lifespan between 10 to 15 years.
The American bison is a large species of mammal from North America. They are also commonly called the American buffalo, although this is not quite correct.
Their color is dark brown and gets darker in summer and lighter in winter. They measure from 2 to 2.8 m and weigh from 318 to 1,000 kg.
The bison is a herbivore and eats grasses and sedges. They live in river valleys, grasslands, semi-arid lands, prairies, and plains.
Their lifespan is 15 years in the wild and 25 years in captivity. They are no longer classed as an endangered species.
The American marten is a small, solitary, and nocturnal member of the Mustelidae family.
Their color ranges from yellowish-brown to black. They measure 32 to 54 cm, and weigh from 0.5 to 1.3 kg.
The American Marten eats smaller animals such as squirrels, birds, and mice, but will also eat fruits and nuts.
They are widely scattered in northern, mature conifer forests throughout the continent. They can be found both on the ground and living in trees, with an estimated lifespan of less than fifteen years.
The Appalachian cottontail is a species of rabbit found in the eastern regions of the United States. They are a small-sized rabbit weighing around 756 grams to 1153 grams and measuring 408 mm in length on average.
The Appalachian cottontails has a light-yellow-brown fur with brown and red patches on the neck. These rabbits are well adapted to colder climates and are usually active at dusk and dawn.
They hide in burrows or logs during the day to escape and to avoid predators. The Appalachian cottontail can be found in mountainous areas between 610 to 770 meters of elevation. They have excellent senses with heightened senses of smell, hearing, and sight.
Atlantic Spotted Dolphin
Also known as the spotter porpoise, the Atlantic spotted dolphin has a large body, growing from 5.6-7.5 ft (1.7-2.3m). Their weight is between 220-315 lb with females slightly smaller.
They ave a long beak which is stubby, separated from the melon with a crease. They are spotted on the sides when they are adults and generally have a color pattern that is three-toned.
Their dorsal fin is tall and centered in the middle. Atlantic spotted dolphins can be seen in pods of 50, although most are seen in small groups of 5-15.
Atlantic White-sided Dolphin
The Atlantic white-sided dolphin grows from 6.2-9.2ft (1.9-2.8m) with a weight between 360-520 lb.
They are similar in coloration to the common dolphin, with gray, white and yellow along the flanks, and a white underside.
The Atlantic white-sided dolphin has a dark-gray stripe from the eye to the flipper, and a dark dorsal fin and flippers. They give birth to a single calf, after a gestation period of 11 months.
Big Brown Bat
The big brown bat is an insectivore that eats mostly beetles, but also consumes other flying insects like moths, flies, and wasps.
They live in all types of habitats, with a lifespan ranging from 18 to 20 years. This animal carries a lot of diseases, including rabies and parasites such as tapeworms and fleas.
The big brown bat is a small, nocturnal flying mammal. They live in colonies and uses echolocation to locate objects while flying at night. The color varies from brown to black.
They measure from 11 to 13 cm, with a wingspan from 32 to 40 cm, and it weighs from 15 to 26 g.
The species of bat lives in North America and the Carribean.
The American black bear is a midsize mammal from North America. Their color is not always black but can be brown, tan, or even blonde.
They measure from 130 to 190 cm and weigh from 200 to 300 kg. The black bear is an omnivore and has a varied diet. This consists mostly of fish, mammals, insects, grasses, roots, and berries.
This black bear is broadly distributed in forest habitats, with an average lifespan of twenty years.
The black rat is a nocturnal rodent that lives in every continent in the world except for Antarctica.
Their color ranges from black to light brown with a lighter color on the underbody. They measure from 12.75 to 18.25 cm and weigh from 75 to 230g.
Black rats are omnivores and eat seeds, stems, fruit, leaves, and fungi. They live in cliffs, rocks, ground, trees, and urban areas.
Their lifespan is 12 months and are considered pests by farmers.
The blue whale is the largest living animal to live on Earth, not just now but throughout history.
This species of whale reaches sizes between 69-95 ft (21-29m), although they are slightly smaller in the Northern Hemisphere.
Females are larger than males and can reach incredible weights of 90-150 tons.
The diet of a blue whale consists mainly of krill, with some crab and squid. They are easy to spot because of their vast size, and can be distinguished by their flattened, broad, u-shaped head.
Even though they are so large, they have a tiny dorsal fin which is set far back.
This giant carnivore eats large quantities of krill, and have a lifespan of 80 to 90 years. They are classed as an endangered species.
The bobcat is a nocturnal and elusive, midsize wildcat related to the lynx. Their appearance is like a big domestic cat with a bobbed tail.
Their color can range from grayish brown to red, with a white underbody. They measure from 47 to 125 cm and weigh from 8 to 9 kg.
The bobcat is a carnivore and eats raccoons, squirrels, rodents, rabbits, birds, reptiles, skunks, and sometimes even deer.
They have extraordinary night vision and can live in all types of habitats across the central section of North America. Their lifespan ranges from 10 to 12 years.
The common bottlenose dolphin grows from 6.2-13.1 ft (1.9-4m). Their diet consists mainly of squid and small fish. They have a single calf with a gestation period of 12 months.
Bottlenose dolphin are gray to black, with a lighter underside and a dorsal cape. They have a short beak, with a mouthline that makes them look like they are smiling.
The common bottlenose dolphin is the dolphin that is that is mostly in television or films.
Common Minke Whale
The minke whale grows between 21-30 ft (6.5-9m) and weighs between 5.5-10 tons.
Their diet consists mainly of krill, crustaceans, and small fish in schools. They have a single calf after a gestation period of 10-11 months.
They are the smallest and most abundant of the rorqual whales. They are slim, with a pointed head, and rarely shows much of itself through the water.
There are three subspecies of the minke whale; North Atlantic, North Pacific and dwarf minke whale.
The cougar is a solitary, elusive, and mostly nocturnal wildcat. They are also known as the puma, mountain lion, and catamount.
Their color is grayish-brown with white on the underbody. Cougars measure about 2.4 m long (including a long tail) and weigh from 53 to 100 kg.
Cougars are carnivores with their main prey being deer. They will also prey on elk, coyotes, mountain goats, beavers, moose, and wild sheep. Smaller cougars will prey on smaller mammals than larger cougars.
They can live in an enormous range of habitats in North America. They have a lifespan that ranges between 8 to 13 years.
The coyote is a midsize canine, with the look of a domestic dog, and are thinner and smaller than the gray wolf. Their color is grayish-brown with a white underbody.
Coyotes measure about 1.5 m (including the tail) and weigh from 6.8 to 21 kg. Their lifespan ranges from ten to fourteen years in the wild and up to twenty one years in captivity.
Coyotes are adaptable and have an extremely varied omnivorous diet. Their diet includes cactus fruits, flowers, insects, rodents, rabbits, birds, and reptiles.
They can be found in most habitats across North America.
Cuvier’s Beaked Whale
Cuvier’s beaked whales grow between 18-23 ft (5.5-7m) with a weight between 2.2 – 3.9 tons.
They feed on squid, fish and crustaceans. They generally have scarring and shark bites on a gray or reddish-brown body. They can be recognized by a sloping forehead and a concave head.
Cuvier’s beaked whales are known to breach. They will generally try to avoid incidents with boats, although they are one of the most-watched beaked whales.
Although they may be seen alone, groups of up to seven may travel together. Groups of 25 have been seen together, although this is rare.
The deer mouse is a small and reclusive rodent. Their color (which resembles that of a deer) varies from gray to brown, with a white underbody.
They measure from 8 to 10 cm (without the tail) and weigh about 20g.
The deer mouse is an omnivore feeding on a wide variety of foods, such as seeds, nuts, fruits, and insects.
They live in many different habitats including forests, mountains, deserts, grasslands, and tropical regions throughout most of North America.
Their lifespan is eight years in captivity and less than a year in the wild. They can carry viruses and bacteria that cause diseases to humans, such as Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS).
Delmarva Fox Squirrel
The Delmara fox squirrel is currently listed as least concern although it was previously endangered. The Delmara fox squirrel is still rare and can be seen along the eastern shore of Maryland and Virginia.
The Delmara fox squirrel gets its name from the long tail and he original region they inhabited, the Delmarva Peninsula
This species of fox squirrel grows up to 75 cm (30 in) although half of this is made up of the tail. They weigh up to 1.4 kgs.
Dwarf Sperm Whale
The dwarf sperm whale measures just 6.9-8.9 ft (2.1-2.7m) with a weight between 300-600 lb.
They are similar in looks to the pygmy sperm whale but have a squarer head, flatter back and a more prominent, pointed, erect dorsal fin.
The dwarf sperm whale has been said to resemble an upside-down surfboard when seen in the water.
Dwarf sperm whales are usually seen laying motionless at the surface of the water. They eat squid and octopus, along with fish and crustaceans.
The Eastern chipmunk is a solitary animal. Their color is reddish-brown with two white stripes surrounded by black stripes on the side of its back and head, with a fifth black stripe running across the center of its back. The chipmunks underbody has a lighter brown color.
They measure about 30 cm (including the tail) and weigh from 66 to 150 g.
The Eastern chipmunk is an omnivore that eats acorns, insects, eggs, mushrooms, snails, nuts, fruits, seeds, berries, and corn.
They like to live in rocky areas, logs, and bushes in deciduous forests and urban parks. They live in the eastern United States and Southeast Canada, with a lifespan of three years.
The Eastern cottontail is a solitary, mostly nocturnal rabbit that lives in the southeast of the United States, and parts of Central and South America.
Their color varies from reddish-brown to grayish brown, with a white underbody. They measure about 37 cm and weigh about 1.2 kg.
The Eastern cottontail is a herbivore that eats various grasses, branches, bark, clover, fruits, and vegetables. Their habitat is mainly grasslands. Their lifespan is three years in the wild and eight years in captivity.
Eastern Gray Squirrel
The Eastern gray squirrel is a diurnal and solitary animal. The color varies from gray to grayish red, and the underbody is white.
The Eastern gray squirrel measures from 23 to 30 cm (including the tail) and weigh 400 to 600 g.
The Eastern gray squirrel is an omnivore and eats nuts, acorns, insects, berries, bird eggs, and seeds.
The Eastern gray squirrel is an adaptable animal that lives in the trees on the Eastern side of North America. They have an expected lifespan of six years.
Eastern Harvest Mouse
The Eastern harvest mouse is a species of rodent found in the United States. Their natural habitats are subtropical and tropical seasonally wet or flooded lowland grasslands, swamps and pasture.
The Eastern harvest mouse typically measures around 107 to 128 mm in body length and are characterized by brown pelage with a dark lateral line.
The underbelly and ventral side of the tail are lightly colored than the rest of the body. Females are usually bigger than males.
On average this species has a very short life span of just nine and a half weeks. They feed primarily on seeds, fruits, and vegetables.
They are found in a range spanning from the north to Maryland to the southern tip of Florida and as far west as Texas and Ohio.
The Eastern mole is a solitary, midsize mammal from the eastern United States. Their color is dark gray. They measure from 14 to 18 cm and weigh from 40 to 50 g.
The Eastern mole is a carnivore and eats worms, insects, larvae, mice, bugs, and small birds.
Eastern moles live in grasslands and thin forests, with an expected lifespan of six years.
The Eastern mole digs tunnels in search of food. Although they control the number of insects in a given location they can cause damage to gardens and yards.
Eastern Red Bat
The Eastern red bat is found across North America, and is a species of microbat. They measure 109 mm (4.3 in) with a weight of just 7 to 13 .
They have long pointed wings with short ears and a long tail.
Eastern red bats are very maneuverable and can fly quickly. They do not hibernate, chosing to stay in the same regions all year.
They are prioritized as least concern by the IUCN.
Eastern Small-footed Bat
The Eastern small-footed bat is a nocturnal mammal found in the eastern United States and southeastern Canada.
Their face, ears, and wings are black, and the rest of the body is grayish brown. They measure from 6.5 to 9.5 cm, with a wingspan ranging from 21 to 25 cm, and weighs from 4 to 8 g.
The Eastern small-footed bat is an insectivore eating beetles, moths, mosquitoes, and flies.
They live in forests with caves and rock formations adequate for roosting.
Their lifespan is 6 to 12 years in the wild, hibernating in winter.
Eastern Spotted Skunk
The Eastern spotted skunks are a small-sized species of skunk that can found inhabiting the Great Plains and Southeastern Woodlands. They can also be found in Canada and the northeastern regions of Mexico.
The Eastern spotted skunk typically measures between 46 and 68 cm in body length and their body range spans between 0.2 and 1.8 kilograms. Males are usually bigger than females.
Eastern spotted skunks have four stripes on their back which are broken in a pattern, giving a spotted appearance from which their name comes from.
They are more active compared to other species of skunks. Their main predators are mostly big cats, owls, and bobcats.
During wintertime, up to eight skunks can share a burrow underground. Eastern spotted skunks are quite secretive and rare for humans to spot.
They do not hibernate but tend to reduce their activity during the winter season.
The elk is one of the largest members of the deer family. They live in the United States and southern Canada.
Their color varies from tan to dark brown. They measure from 2.1 to 2.4 m in length and weigh between 220 to 330 kg.
The elk is a herbivore that eats grass, leaves, bark, and brushwood. They live mainly in forests, and have an expected lifespan of ten to thirteen years in the wild.
The evening bat is a species of vesper bat native to North America. They typically inhabit much of the midwestern and eastern regions of the United States.
They are a small-sized bat, which weighs approximately 7-15 grams, with forearms spanning from 34 to 38 mm in length.
The tip of their dorsal hair is light gray, with a brown pelage. The evening bat has robust jaws compared to other insectivorous bats.
The average lifespan is less than four years, which may explain the higher reproductive output when compared to other bats that live longer
The fin whale is a large whale growing between 59-88 ft (18-27m), although slightly smaller in the Northern Hemisphere. They reach a weight between 34-100 tons.
There are several thousand fin whales off the West Coast of America.
They have pigmentation on their heads that is different on both sides which is rare for any species of whale. This is said to confuse their prey.
They are the second-largest living animal on Earth after the blue whale.
Populations of the fin whale can be seen almost year-round in the Gulf of California and British Columbia.
The gray fox is a solitary fox that lives in the southern part of the United States and Mexico.
Their back has a scattered combination of light and dark gray with sides of reddish-brown and an underbody of white.
They measure from 76 to 112.5 cm and weigh from 3.6 to 7kg. Their lifespan is sixteen years in the wild and up to twenty years in captivity.
The gray fox is an omnivore and eats mice, birds, voles, rabbits, insects, corn, fruits, nuts, and berries.
They live in dense forests, in areas with rocky terrain or thick vegetation.
The gray seal is a mammal that lives in huge groups on all the coasts of the North Atlantic Ocean.
Their colors vary from gray to black or dark brown, and their skins are spotted.
They measure from 1.95 to 2.3 m long and weigh from 170 to 310 kg.
The gray seal is a carnivore that eats fish, crabs, lobsters, shrimp, octopuses, squids, and seabirds.
They live on rocky coasts, floating sheets of ice, sandbanks, and icebergs. Their lifespan is 25 to 35 years.
The gray wolf is a social canine that lives in the northern regions of North America.
The colors of the gray wolf vary a lot depending on their geographical location. They can be gray, brown, black, tan, or white. However, the predominant color is gray. The underbody is usually lighter, and sometimes white.
Gray wolves measures from 1.05 to 1.60 m and weigh from 12 to 79.4 kg.
Gray wolves are carnivores eating a wide variety of meat. Gray wolves will eat deer, beavers, boar, mountain goats, bison, elk, moose, birds, fish, rodents, and hares.
They live in a great variety of habitats, which include mountains, grasslands, forests, tundra, and deserts.
Their lifespan is six to thirteen years in the wild and seventeen years in captivity.
The hairy-tailed mole is a midsize mammal found in the eastern United States and southeastern Canada. Their color is dark gray.
The hairy-tailed mole measures from 13 to 15 cm and weighs about 51g. They are an insectivore and eat worms, larvae, slugs, and ants.
The hairy-tailed mole lives in deciduous and coniferous forests, and open areas. Their lifespan is up to four years.
The harbor porpoise is a small, shy, and elusive marine mammal, and is a relative to dolphins.
The harbor porpoise grows from 4.3-6.6ft (1.3-2m) and a weight of 110-165 lb.
They are dark on their dorsal side and are lighter underneath. They have a small, indistinct beak and one or more stripes from their mouth to the flipper.
The harbor porpoise is a carnivore and mainly eats fish and sometimes octopuses and squids.
They like to swim in shallow bodies of water and even frequents inland water bodies, such as rivers and estuaries.
They can be found in the Pacific Ocean in Alaska, Aleutian and Pribilof Island, San Juan Islands, Westport and the Olympic Coast, California and Vancouver Island. They can also be seen around Newfoundland and the St Lawrence River.
Their average lifespan in the wild is about 20 years.
The harbor seal is also known as the common seal. Their color is brownish gray with light or dark spots, and the color is lighter on the underbody.
They measure 1.85 m and weigh from 55 to 168 kg.
They are carnivores and eat squid, crustaceans, shrimp, crab, mollusks, and fish.
They live in the harbors in both the east and west coasts of the northern regions of North America.
They can usually be found in rocks, beaches, and glacier ice, rarely moving from too far. However, if there is a danger, they will rush to deeper water.
They are an excellent swimmer and have a lifespan of 20 to 35 years.
The harp seal is a species of earless seal. They can be found in the Atlantic Ocean and Arctic Ocean.
The harp seal has fur of silver-gray, with black spots and jet-black eyes. They grow from 1.7-2.0m and weigh from 115-145 kg.
Unlike other seals, the harp seal can dive to deep depths. They have been spotted at over 500m deep, and can hold their breath for up to twenty minutes. Dive depth increases in winter when there is less food at shallow depths.
The hoary bat is a nocturnal vesper bat found in parts of North America and Hawaii, where they are a native mammal.
They use echolocation for flying at night and to find food. Their color is dark brown, but the hairs have a white tip.
They measure from 13 to 15 cm, with a wingspan measuring 40 cm, and a weight of just 20 to 35 g. The hoary bat is the largest species in Canada.
This species of bat insectivore eats moths, but also other insects like beetles, crickets, flies, and bugs. Some of the insects it hunts are considered pests.
These bats usually roost solitarily on trees, hidden by foliage. They live in coniferous forests and generally hunt over open areas or lake. They have a very long migratory pattern. Their lifespan is about two years.
The hooded seal gets its name from an inflatable bladder on the head of the male. The bladder hangs over the eyes and the lips when deflated.
They can inflate the bladder before diving underwater. They can then inflate and deflate the bladder as they are swimming. The inflated sac can be used by the hooded seal when swimming to ward off other species when it feels threatened.
Males have a membrane that comes out of the left nostril that produces sounds which they use to attract a mate, but mainly for signaling acoustically.
The inflatable bladder is used for accoustic signaling, threatening other species when competing for food. The bladder also communicates information about their status and health to other members of the species.
The nostril membrane produces different sounds when shaken, depending if underwater or on land. These signals can be used for sexual purposes to attract a mate, but are used mainly for acoustic situations and signalling.
Only males have the hood, which they develop at the age of four. Females do not grow the bladder.
The house mouse is a secretive and cautious mouse that is sometimes domesticated.
Their color is gray, black or brown with a lighter underbody. They measure from 7.5 to 10 cm (including the tail) and weigh from 40 to 45g.
The house mouse is an omnivore eating meat, fruits, seeds, and grains. They tend to live in places where humans live.
Their lifespan is less than one year in the wild but can be between 2 to 3 years in protected environments.
The humpback whale grows between 46-56 ft (14-17m) with a weight between 28-45 tons.
They approach whale-watching boats and are very inquisitive. They are popular with whale-watchers due to their breaching, lobtailing, spyhopping and flipper-slapping.
They have a gestation period of 11-12 months and give birth to one calf.
They can be seen in many places in North America, with Hawaii, British Columbia and Alaska as particularly good places to spot them.
The Indiana Bat is a midsize, social species of bat found in the eastern part of the United States.
Their colors vary from dark brown to black. The Indiana bat measures from 4.1 to 4.9 cm and weighs about 7g.
The Indiana bat is an insectivore and eats flies, moths, bees, wasps, midges, ants, mosquitoes, and beetles. They live in wooded areas, where they can be found roosting in trees.
During the winter the Indiana bat hangs from ceilings clustered in groups to hibernate.
Their lifespan is about 14 years and are considered an endangered species.
The killer whale is also commonly known as the Orca, a name taken from its binomial name of Orcinus orca.
Killer whales are the largest members of the dolphin family, growing from 6 to 8 meters long and weight 5.9 tons. Females are smaller than males.
They are one of the fastest marine mammals due to their size and incredible strength, reaching speeds ip to 56 km/h. They have a black upper side with a white underside.
The least shrew is from the eastern United States and southeastern Mexico.
Their color varies from gray to brown with a lighter color on the underbody. They measure from 7 to 9 cm and weigh from 4 to 7g.
The least shrew eats carcasses, seeds, fruits, and insects, and live in grasslands with forest edges. Their lifespan is one year in the wild and 2.6 years in captivity.
The least weasel is also known as the common weasel or little weasel. They are the smallest member of the genus Mustela.
They are native to North America, but also Eurasia and North Africa. Their bodies are slender and elongated, with relatively short tail and legs.
The average body length is around 130 to 260 mm, and they weigh between 36 to 250 grams, with males being slightly bigger than females.
The color of the pelage of least weasels varies according to the geographical location, but underparts are usually white, and the back, limbs, and tail are a shade of brown.
Their diet consists mainly of small rodents. Males mark their territory with olfactory signs and are strongly territorial and dominant weasels.
Least weasels may have aggressive encounters with each other. The least weasel occupies a wide range of different habitats.
Little Brown Myotis
The little brown bat is a small North American bat. Their colors vary from light tan to dark brown, with a lighter color on its underbody.
The little brown bat measures from 8 to 9.5 cm and weighs from 5.5 to 12.5g.
This insectivore eats mosquitoes, moths, and beetles. The little brown bats live in most of North America.
They will find any place to roost during the day, such as trees, caves, and rocks. In winter, this bat hibernates in caves. Their lifespan is from 6 to 7 years.
Long-finned Pilot Whale
The long-finned pilot whale is a large and social species of dolphin found in the North Atlantic and the Antarctic Ocean.
Their color is normally black but can be dark gray or brown. They have a light gray mark from the eyes to the dorsal fin.
The pilot whale measures from 3.7 to 6.7 m and weighs from 1,000 to 3,000 kg.
They are carnivores and eat turbot, squid, dogfish, hake, octopus, cod, and shrimp.
The long-finned pilot whale lives in cold, mild water, closer to the North and South Poles. Their lifespan is up to an impressive 45 years.
The long-tailed shrew is a small shrew measuring 48 to 79 mm. Their tail takes the total length to 120 mm. They weigh between 3.1 to 8.3 g.
The long-tailed shrew lives in mountainous territories around and under rocks or near streams.
Their long tail is used to help them balance when they climb in their rocky habitat. They are gray to black in color.
The long-tailed weasel is a fearless, aggressive hunter. They are also known as the bridled weasel or the big stoat.
Their color is reddish-brown with a light yellow underbody, but in cold northern regions they are completely white.
The long-tailed weasel measures from 23 to 35 cm and weighs from 85 to 267 g. They are carnivores and can attack animals that are twice their size.
They eat mostly mice, voles, rabbits, chipmunks, birds, eggs, and insects.
They live in grasslands and thin forests in sub-tropical areas with mild temperatures in the southern states of North America. Their lifespan is up to five years.
The West Indian Manatee is a large, heavy, gray, seal-shaped animal with a round tail and flippers. They have faces that are wrinkled with long whiskers.
They grow up to 3 meters (10ft) and weigh between 800 to 1,200 pounds.
They breathe at the surface, but remain just below with just their snout poking out, before diving.
Manatees can dive for up to twelve minutes, although will normally dive for less than half of this time.
Marsh Rice Rat
The marsh rice rat, as its name suggests, normally inhabits marshy areas. They can also be found where there is an adequate food supply of grasses and sedges.
The marsh rice rat needs a habitat where they can find protective cover.
They are approximately 245mm in length and weigh up to 70g.
They are omnivores, eating equal amounts of plant and animal matter to make up their diet. They eat marsh grasses, rice, fungus and green vegetation.
The animal part of their diet consists of insects, small crabs, fish, snails and other small animals.
The masked shrew, also known as the cinereus shrew and common shrew, is a small, nocturnal, and solitary animal.
Their color is grayish-brown with a lighter grayish color on the underbody. They measure just 9 cm, with a weight of 5g.
Masked shrews are carnivores eating insect larvae, ants, grasshoppers, crickets, spiders, worms, snails, small rodents, and salamanders.
They live in grasslands, forests, riverbanks, lakeshores, and tundra in the northern part of North America. Their lifespan is 14 months.
Meadow Jumping Mouse
The meadow jumping mouse is a solitary and mostly nocturnal North American rodent. They can jump 8 feet or more when they are disturbed.
Their color is light brown, with a thick dark brown stripe on its back and a white underbody. They are a small-sized rodent with very long tails and feet. They measure from 18 to 24 cm (including the tail) and weigh from 11.5 to 35 g.
The meadow jumping mouse is an omnivore eating mostly seeds, insects, and fruits.
The meadow jumping mouse lives mostly in grasslands, thin forests and humid areas in the northern part of North America.
Their lifespan is less than a year in the wild, but up to five years in captivity.
The meadow vole is a small, mostly nocturnal rodent. They are also known as other names such as the field mouse or meadow mouse.
Their colors vary from yellowish or reddish-brown to dark brown, and the underbody is gray. They measure about 12 cm and weigh about 43g.
This herbivore eats grasses, weeds, grains, seeds, bark, roots, and fruits. They live in dense grasslands and thin forests in the northern part of North America (except for the most intense polar regions).
The meadow vole is an excellent swimmer and are also good at digging holes.
Their lifespan ranges from 2 to 16 months. Some people consider them a pest because they cause great damage to plants, and also carry similar diseases as other rodents.
The melon-headed whale is small and dolphin-like. They measure between 6.9-9.2 ft (2.1-2.8m) and weigh between 350-600 lb.
They have been seen breaching and spy hopping. Melon-headed whales are known to approach boats and are often seen bow-riding.
They are gray to dark-gray with a dark dorsal cape. They have a dark mask on their face, with light lips.
Their dorsal fin is located in the middle of their back, and they have pointed flippers.
They can be seen traveling together in groups of up to 2,000, although groups of 100-500 are more likely.
The mink is a semiaquatic mammal from Canada and the United States. Their color varies between tan to dark brown or black.
Mink measure about 62 cm and weigh about 1 kg.
Mink are carnivores and eat frogs, fish, salamanders, birds, muskrats, eggs, crayfish, mice, and voles.
They live near water bodies and close to trees. Their lifespan is three years in the wild and ten years in captivity.
The muskrat is the only species of the genus Ondatra. The muskrat is a midsize, mostly nocturnal, semiaquatic rodent from North America. Their colors vary from brown to black, with a lighter underbody.
Muskrats measure from 40 to 70 cm and weigh from 600 grams up to 2 kg. Their lifespan is 3 to 4 years.
The muskrat is an omnivore and eats aquatic vegetation, farm and garden plants, roots, pondweed, fruits, vegetables, snails, salamanders, crustaceans, fish, and birds.
They live in wetlands in the northern part of North America. They are considered as a pest because of the destruction it causes in the places where they live and the diseases that they can carry.
The fur of the muskrat is thick and short of a dark-brown color. Their tails are covered with scales which help them swim rapidly and with ease.
Muskrats spend the majority of their time in the water and can swim underwater for up to 17 minutes. This species usually lives in a group made up of a male, female and their offspring.
Muskrats make nests to protect themselves from the cold temperatures and predators. The nests are usually burrows with an underwater entrance.
North Atlantic Right Whale
The North Atlantic right whale is a large whale with a length of 49-52 ft (15-16m) and weighing between 34-78 tons. Females grow larger than males.
North Atlantic right whales live mainly on krill and copepods. They are a slow swimmer but can be acrobatic. Their behavior includes lobtails, flipper-slaps and frequently breaches.
The North Atlantic right whale is very inquisitive and approaches boats.
Their name comes from whalers who thought they were the right whale to catch due to their inquisitiveness.
They have a single calf after a gestation period of 12-13 months. They have no dorsal fin, a dark body, and a very large head covered in patches of rough skin.
Northern Long-eared Bat
The Northern long-eared myotis is a species of bat. They use echolocation to navigate while flying.
Their color varies from yellowish light brown to black, and measure about 8.6 cm and weigh from 5 to 8 g.
This insectivore eats mostly moths, beetles, flies, and leafhoppers. They live in boreal forests (taiga) in the eastern, central part of North America. Their lifespan is about 18.5 years.
They are an endangered species due to a sickness that is killing the species.
Northern River Otter
The river otter is a smart, semiaquatic mammal found in the northern states.
The river otter has short, very dense fur. Their colors vary from gray to brown, with a lighter underbody.
They measure from 66 to 107 cm and weighs from 5 to 14 kg.
River otters are carnivores eating fish, turtles, frogs, crayfish, and insects.
They live in aquatic habitats in the northern part of North America. Their lifespan is eight to nine years in the wild and fifteen to twenty years in captivity.
Northern Short-tailed Shrew
The Northern short-tailed shrew is a mammal found in the northern parts of North America.
Their color is dark gray, with a lighter shade of gray on the underbody. They measure from 11 to 14 cm and weigh from 15 to 30 g.
The Northern short-tailed shrew is a carnivore eating insects, salamanders, worms, mice, snails, seeds, voles, and fungi.
They can live in many habitats, including grasslands and deciduous and coniferous forests, with an expected lifespan of 1 to 3 years.
The Norway rat is a nocturnal and cautious mammal that lives everywhere in the world except for Antarctica.
The color of the Norway rat varies from gray to brown with a lighter color on the underbody.
They measure about 28 cm and weigh from 140 to 500g.
Norway rats are omnivores and eat seeds, grains, nuts, fruits, insects, and small animals.
This species of rat lives in forests and urban areas. Their lifespan is expected to be between 1 to 3 years.
The nutria is very similar in appearance to a beaver. They have light to dark-brown fur, and are also aquatic.
Unlike the beaver, their rounded tails have fewer hairs which are not as flat or wide.
Nutria are about one-third the size of an adult beaver.
Nutria are sometimes misidentified as a large muskrat, although they are over five times the size. The tail of a muskrat, like a beaver lays flat, although more triangular.
Nutria have long white whiskers unlike beavers and muskrats which have black whiskers.
Nutria can weigh up to 20 lbs with a body length up to 2 ft. Their tails are long at 1-1.5 ft long, and have webbed hind feet.
They can be destructive, causing damage through burrowing. The damage can erode river banks, cause flood-control levees to breech and weaken.
Nutria also cause damage to the plants in their environment as well. They eat up to 25% of their body weight per day but destroy and waste approximately ten times as much again.
The damage they cause can threaten rare populations of other animals which rely on these habitats, as well as livelihoods of agricultural farms.
The North American porcupine is the second-largest rodent found in North America. Their back is covered with strong quills, made of keratin.
They can be easily recognized by quills, that are solid at the tip and base and present around all its body, except for the stomach. The quills are used as a defense mechanism.
North American porcupines have a color that is dark brown or black with hairless feet.. They measure from 60 to 90 cm without counting the tail which measures around 14.5 up to 30 cm. They weigh from 4.5 to 18 kg.
They are herbivorous eating leaves, seeds, grass, nuts, buds, fruits, and green plants. They are often found climbing on trees to eat leaves.
The porcupine lives mostly in forests, deserts, and grasslands in the northern part of North America, with a lifespan of about 30 years.
This species of porcupines are endangered because due to hunting and also because of loss of habitat.
The American pygmy shrew is a small mammal from the north of the continent. Their color ranges from reddish-brown to grayish brown, and the pygmy shrew has a light color on their underbody.
This species of shrew measures up to 5 cm and weighs from just 2 to 4.5 g.
The American pygmy shrew is an insectivore and will eat insects and larvae. They live in coniferous and deciduous forests, with a lifespan of about 16 to 17 months.
Pygmy Sperm Whale
The pygmy sperm whale grows between 8.9-12.5 ft with a weight between 700 -1000 lb.
They eat squid and octopus, but will also eat crustaceans and fish.
They leave behind a squid-ink like substance in the water when frightened or startled, leaving a cloud in the water.
Pygmy sperm whales are often stranded when visiting areas such as Florida.
They look similar to the dwarf sperm whale but have a small, hooked dorsal fin and are more rounded in profile. They have a small body and are sometimes mistaken for sharks.
The raccoon is a nocturnal midsize mammal. Their color is gray, brown or black. They have a white face with a black mask around its eyes.
They measure from 40 to 70 cm and weigh from 5 to 26 kg.
The raccoon is an opportunistic omnivore eating fruit, plants, oak nuts, insects, worms, rodents frogs, nuts, eggs, and crayfish.
Raccoons live in forests, suburban, and urban areas in the Central and southern states of North America. The average lifespan of a raccoon is two to three years.
The red fox is a midsize fox that lives in the northern region of North America.
The color varies from light yellow to red, with dark legs, and a white underbody. They measure from 45 to 90 cm and weigh from 2.2 to 14 kg. Their lifespan is between two to five years.
The red fox is an omnivore eating grasses, fruits, corn, apples, oak nuts, cherries, berries, mice, birds, rabbits, squirrels, crickets, grasshoppers, beetles, caterpillars, and crayfish.
The red fox lives in forests, grasslands, mountains, deserts, and suburban areas.
The red squirrel is a small, solitary, and diurnal animal. Their color is gray, red or dark brown, with white on its underbody, and sometimes has black stripes on its sides.
They measure from 28 to 35 cm (including the tail) and weighs from 200 to 282 g.
The red squirrel eats sunflower seeds and all types of nuts. They are arboreal, living in coniferous, deciduous, and mixed forests, with a lifespan of 5 to 10 years.
Risso’s dolphin look completely different from any other species of dolphin. They are heavily scarred, either from squid or from each other when playing or fighting.
They have a bulbous, large head with a beak that is not distinct. They have a crease on the front of the melon, with the dark dorsal fin, flipper and flukes.
Risso’s dolphin are various colors, ranging from light white to dark gray.
They are a large dolphin growing from 12.5-13.5 ft (3.8-4.1m) and weighing from 660-1,100 lb.
The sei whale is a large marine mammal, measuring from 39-52 ft (12-18m) and weighing between 17-45 tons. The females are larger than males.
There are no commercial whale-watching operations anywhere dedicated to watching this species of whale. They do not gather in the same areas from one season to the next as most whales do, making them elusive.
They have a more varied diet than most other baleen whales. Their diet includes krill, copepods, crustaceans and schooling fish. They are mostly dark gray or brown, with a prominent dorsal fin.
Short-beaked Common Dolphin
The short-beaked common dolphin is also known as the common porpoise.
Males are slightly larger than females with sizes between 5.2-8.9 ft (1.6-2.7m) and a weight of 155-440 lb.
They are fast swimmers and can be seen bow-riding alongside boats. Herds of this species can be seen in sizes ranging from 10 up to 10,000.
They have a short beak with a dark cape with a V shape under the fin. They have a white underside and yellow or tan patches on their sides.
Short-finned Pilot Whale
The short-finned pilot whale is medium-sized, growing from 12-23 ft (3.6-7.2m) and weighing between 1.1-3.9 tons.
They are dark gray, brown or black with a gray patch behind the fin. Short-finned pilot whales are stocky, with a round forehead and almost non-existent beak.
They have a large dorsal fin which is set forward on the body but arches backwards.
They typically travel in groups of 15-50 individuals, but groups of several hundred have been seen together.
Sika deer stand up to almost a meter tall at the shoulder, although females are smaller with a heigh of 0.7 meters. Stags can weigh up to 70kg and hinds can weigh up to 45 kgs.
Sika deer have different colors depending on the time of year. In winter their coats are a dark gray or black but in summer they are a yellow-brown or red-brown. Sika deer can be recognized by a dark dorsal stripe on their back.
Male sika deer have antlers with a maximum of eight points, but females do not grow antlers.
Sika deer were introduced into North America from Asia.
The silver-haired bat is a nocturnal, solitary mammal from the central part of North America. They use echolocation when flying to guide them and to find food.
Their color is normally black, but can sometimes be dark brown, with gray tips to their fur.
They measure about 10 cm and weighs from 8 to 12 g. This insectivore eats flies, leafhoppers, moths, mosquitoes, beetles, bugs and ants, which they find in forest habitats.
Their average lifespan is 12 years, and they migrate to warmer climates in winter.
The smoky shrew is a nocturnal mammal that lives in eastern North America.
They normally use tunnels from other moles or shrews, rarely digging their own.
Their color is grayish-brown with a lighter underbody. They measure about 11 cm with a weight of 5g.
This insectivore eats beetles, spiders, bugs, snails, insects, fungi, centipedes, worms, and larvae.
They live in coniferous and deciduous forests, marshes, swamps, and grasslands, with a lifespan of 14 to 17 months.
The snowshoe hare is also called the varying hare or snowshoe rabbit, taking this the name because of the large size of the hind feet.
They are a hare from the northern region of North America.
The snowshoehare lives in boreal and montane forests of North America.
They have wide paws for moving in the snow. Their feet prevent these rabbits from sinking in the snow when hopping and walking. They are covered with fur on the soles too, for protection against freezing temperature.
Their color is brown in summer and white in winter but always has a gray underbody. They can be distinguished by black tufts of hair on the edge of their ears and by the relatively small size of their ears compared with other hares.
Their lifespan is five years. They usually measure about 36 to 52 centimeters and can weigh 1.3 to 1.7 kilograms as adults.
The snowshoe hare is a herbivore and eats grass, leaves, ferns, buds, twigs, evergreen needles, small stems, and bark. They adapt their diet according to the season. They usually feed on grass, fens, and leaves during the summer and turn to twigs and bark in the wintertime.
The Southeastern shrew can be found among forests, woodland, scrub, brushlands, marshes, bogs, shrub, fields and meadows.
They are very small, with a size up to 10 cm, and a weight of just 4g. They have a brown fur with a reddish-brown tint, and molt twice a year. They live up to a maximum of eighteen months. They have a litter of up to five young.
They feed on slugs, snails, centipedes, vegetation, insect larvae and spiders.
They live in the underground burrows of other animals, venturing out to find food.
Southern Bog Lemming
The Southern bog lemming is a small mammal from eastern regions of North America.
Their color varies from red to dark brown, and light gray on the underbody.
They measure about 13 cm long and weigh about 35 g.
The Southern bog lemming eats plants, seeds, stems, and leaves. They live in grasslands, moist areas, deciduous and coniferous forests, wetlands, and marshes. Their lifespan is 29 months.
Southern Flying Squirrel
The Southern flying squirrel is a nocturnal mammal that glides from one tree to the next with the aid of membranes between its front and hind legs.
They live in the western regions of North America. Their color is grayish brown, with a white underbody.
They measure from 21 to 26cm (including the tail) and weigh from 45 to 82g.
The Southern flying squirrel is an omnivore and eats nuts, seeds, spiders, acorns, fungi, eggs, insects, shrubs, buds, mushrooms, flowers, and fruits.
These squirrels have gray fur and whitish color in their bellies. To glide through the air, they use a furry membrane called patagium that extends between the front and rear legs.
This species of flying squirrel is found in deciduous and mixed woods in the eastern regions of North America, from southeastern Canada to Florida.
They have a lifespan of five to six years in the wild and ten years in captivity.
Southern Red-backed Vole
The southern red-backed vole is a mostly nocturnal, small mammal from the central region of North America.
Their main color is gray and they have a red stripe on their back, with an underbody of gray or white.
They measure from 7 to 11.2 cm and weigh from 6 to 42g.
The Southern red-backed vole is an omnivore eating insects, grains, fruits, nuts, seeds, berries, leaves, roots, bark, fungi, and lichens.
They live in coniferous, deciduous, and mixed forests near water bodies in southern Canada and the northern United States, with a short lifespan of just 10 to 20 months.
Southern Rock Vole
The rock vole lives among the rocks and boulders in its habitat and normally live close to streams. Rock voles live in deciduous-coniferous and hardwood forests where the rocks provide ample cover from predators.
Rock voles feed on plants, cutting vegetation down before eating it. Small clumps of freshly cut vegetation underneath rocks and near streams is a good indicator that the rock vole has made his home close by.
The rock vole has a length up to 185 mm with a weight of just under 50g.
They typically have up to five young after a quick gestation period of twenty one days. Rock voles can mate again within 24 hours of giving birth.
Southern Water Shrew
The American water shrew is a solitary and semiaquatic species of shrew. Their color changes throughout the year, from light brown in the summer to black in the winter.
The water shrew measures from 13 to 17 cm and weighs from 8 to 18 g. They live in streams and ponds, with a lifespan of about 18 months.
This species of water shrew is an omnivore eating aquatic insects, small fish, plants, and snails.
The sperm whale grows between 36-52 ft (11-16m) with a weight between 15-50 tons.
They have a dark gray-body with a squarish head and a hump instead of a dorsal fin.
Their blowhole is slit-like, and they can often be seen laying motionless at the surface of the water. They have a single calf after a long gestation period of 14-16 months.
The star-nosed mole is a solitary mammal from eastern North America. Their color ranges from dark brown to black.
They measure from 15 to 20 cm and weigh from 37 to 76 g. This carnivore eats worms, amphibians, aquatic insects, mollusks, and small fish. It lives in wet lowland areas, forests, and marshes.
Star-nosed moles have a lifespan of 2.5 years in captivity. By using their star-nose, they gather a clear image of their surroundings.
The striped dolphin takes their name from the dark stripes that run down the sides of their bodies. They have a gray or blue-gray cape on the dorsal side, with stripes from the eye to the flipper along their sides. They can have stripes with colors of pink and blue on their sides as well.
They grow from 5.9-8.9 ft (1.8-2.7m) and weigh from 200-360 lb.
They have some amazing behaviors, able to leap up to 23 ft, with belly flops and somersaults seeming no trouble.
They also roto-tail when they come out of the water. This involves moving their tails in circles as they leap out of the water.
The striped skunk is a mostly nocturnal species of skunk found in the central states of North America.
Their color can be black, gray, or brown but always has a white stripe on their back running from head to tail.
They measure from 52 to 77 cm and weigh between 1.8 to 4.5 kg. Striped skunks are omnivores and eat crickets, grasshoppers, beetles, caterpillars, mice, voles, eggs, and small birds.
The striped skunk lives in open areas such as grasslands or thin forests in southern Canada, the United States, and northern Mexico. Their lifespan is up to seven years.
The tri-colored bat is a small, nocturnal species of bat found in eastern North America and Central America. They are one of the native North American mammals.
Their colors range from yellowish-brown to reddish-brown. They measure from 30 to 35 mm and weigh from 4 to 10 g.
The tai-colored bat is an insectivore eating moths, midges, flies, beetles, mosquitoes, and ants. They live in semi-open places with large trees in forests, grasslands, urban and suburban areas.
Their lifespan is 4 to 8 years in the wild. It is possible that they could become an endangered species in the near future.
True’s Beaked Whale
True’s beaked whale measure between 15.7-17.7 ft (4.8-5.4m) with a weight between 1.1-1.5 tons. They feed on squid and fish.
There have only been a few sightings so very little is known about their behavior.
They are brownish-gray or bluish-gray with a lighter underside. They are a medium-sized whale with a spindle-shaped body. They have a dark patch around each eye and a short beak.
They have a bulbous head, and at the blowhole is an indentation. They have a dorsal fin which is short.
The Virginia opossum is the only marsupial found in North America. Their habitats can vary and are one of the species to thrive in urban areas. They prefer living close to water sources.
This medium-sized animal measures between 13-37cm in length and can weigh between 0.3-3.7 kg.
They have rather short legs and typically gray or brownish fur.
This animal is known to act as if they are dead as protection against predators.
The Virginia opossum is an omnivore eating almost anything: carcasses, garbage, plants, animals, and insects.
They live in deciduous forests, farming areas, marshes, swamps, and wooded streams. Their lifespan is four years.
White-footed Deer Mouse
The white-footed mouse is a timid, nocturnal mammal that lives in eastern regions of North America.
Their color is reddish-brown, with a dark, broad mark on its back and a white underbody.
The white-footed mouse measures from 9 to 10 cm (without the tail) and weighs from 20 to 30g.
They are omnivores eating seeds, nuts, grain, insects, fungi, and fruit. They live in warm, dry forests and semi-desert areas. Their lifespan is one year in the wild.
The white-tailed deer is a mammal found in the central part of the American continent. In North America, they live in most of Mexico and the United States and southern parts of Canada.
Their color is grayish-brown in the winter and reddish-brown in the summer. They have patches of white on their face, underbody, and tail.
The white-tailed deer measures from 95 to 220 cm and weighs from 45 to 68 kg.
White-tailed deer are hebivores eating grass, corn, leaves, nuts, twigs, fruits, and fungi.
They adapt well to different habitats and live in grasslands, forests, farmlands, and deserts. Their lifespan is four to five years.
The woodchuck, also known as the groundhog or the red monk, is typical of the eastern regions of the United States, Canada, and Alaska.
Males are usually bigger than females, but their weight changes considerably across different seasons. Generally, they measure 42 to 68.5 cm, although their weight ranges during the year from 2 to 6.5 kilos.
They are a diurnal animal that on average lives two to three years. They enjoy staying in the open air, and they are very territorial animals that live in colonies.
Woodland Jumping Mouse
The woodland jumping mouse is a small, solitary, and usually nocturnal midsize rodent found in eastern North America.
Their color varies from yellowish-brown on the sides to dark brown on their back. They have an underbody that is white.
They measure from 20.5 to 25.6 cm and weigh from 17 to 26 g.
They can jump as high as 3 meters (or 9.8 feet) by leveraging their strong feet and long tail. They prefer a quadrupedal walk to move around.
They prefer forested habitats. The fur of the woodland jumping mouse has several shades of brown along with white feet.
The woodland jumping mouse is an omnivore and eats grass, fruits, berries, fungi, seeds, and insects. They live in forests in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada with a four year lifespan.
The woodland vole is a mammal that lives in the eastern regions of the United States.
Their color is light or dark brown, with a white or gray underbody. They measure from 83 to 121 cm and weigh from 14 to 37 g.
The woodland vole is a herbivore and eats roots, nuts, seeds, and leaves. They live in deciduous forests and have a very short lifespan of three months.
Bryan Harding is a member of the American Society of Mammalogists and a member of the American Birding Association. Bryan is especially fond of mammals and has studied and worked with them around the world. Bryan serves as owner, writer, and publisher of North American Nature.