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Alabama is a state that has many species of mammals living there. Twenty two million acres of forest share the state along with many creeks, rivers, mountains, plains, lakes, and streams.

There are currently over sixty five species of mammals living in Alabama. Alabama is home to many rare species of bats, along with rarer mammals such as the jaguarundi, along with some of the largest including bison.

For more information on which mammals make the state their ‘Sweet Home Alabama,’ please read on.

Would you like to know what your state mammal is?  Find out in this article I wrote

Sweet Home Alabama

Alabama Beach Mouse

The Alabama beach mouse can only be found in Alabama as its name suggests.  The Alabama beach mouse can only be found along the Gulf coast from Ono Island to Fort Morgan.  They are protected in Bon Secour National Wildlife Refuge in Baldwin County. 

The beach mouse is a subspecies of field mouse, and can be found in sand dunes around the coast.  They are omnivorous, eating mainly insects and seeds.  

The Alabama beach mouse is approximately 4-5 inches in length, including their tail, weighing about 12.5 grams.

They are classed as an endangered species.  The seriousness of their endangerment and subsequent protections was shown when housing construction was halted in their habitat.

American Badger

The American badger is one of many carnivorous North American mammals. Their color is dark gray with a white stripe on its back, white patches on its eyes, and a white underbody. 

The American badger measures from 60 to 75 cm and weighs from 6.3 to 8.6 kg. This carnivore eats mice, squirrels, groundhogs, moles, marmots, and prairie dogs. 

They live in grasslands, prairies, marshes, and farms. Their lifespan is four to fourteen years in the wild and twenty six in captivity.

American Mink

The American mink can be found in northern regions of North America. The color varies from brown to black, and they have a white patch on the throat. 

They measure from 31 to 45 cm and weigh from 400 to 1580 g.  Their lifespan is three to four years in the wild and ten years in captivity.

American mink are carnivores eating muskrats, snakes, mice, fish, rabbits, chipmunks, birds, and frogs. They live in wet areas like swamps and marshlands or near water bodies.

American Pygmy Shrew

The American pygmy shrew is a small mammal from the north of the continent.  Their color ranges from reddish-brown to grayish brown, and the pygmy shrew has a light color on their underbody.  

This species of shrew measures up to 5 cm and weighs from just 2 to 4.5 g. 

The American pygmy shrew is an insectivore and will eat insects and larvae.  They live in coniferous and deciduous forests, with a lifespan of about 16 to 17 months.

Appalachian Cottontail

The Appalachian cottontail is a species of rabbit found in the eastern regions of the United States. They are a small-sized rabbit weighing around 756 grams to 1153 grams and measuring 408 mm in length on average. 

The Appalachian cottontails has a light-yellow-brown fur with brown and red patches on the neck. These rabbits are well adapted to colder climates and are usually active at dusk and dawn.  

They hide in burrows or logs during the day to escape and to avoid predators. The Appalachian cottontail can be found in mountainous areas between 610 to 770 meters of elevation. They have excellent senses with heightened senses of smell, hearing, and sight.


Beaver on a dam

The North American beaver can reach up to 32 kg, with 20 kilograms being the average weight. They can measure 74-90cm, excluding the tail which adds a further 25-30 cm. 

They beaver is the largest rodent in North America and are semi-aquatic. They have a transparent third eyelid allowing them to see underwater. 

Beavers play an important role in the environment and are a keystone species. They are well known for building dams, canals, and lodges. They construct dams to flood areas to obtain access to food and protection.

They live in colonies, and have orange teeth due to the amount of iron they contain.  This makes their teeth stronger than regular teeth.

The beaver is a herbivore and eats bark, cambium, roots, buds, and water plants. The North American beaver lives in forests (near water bodies) in the northern parts of North America, with a lifespan between 10 to 15 years. 

Big Brown Bat

The big brown bat is an insectivore that eats mostly beetles, but also consumes other flying insects like moths, flies, and wasps.

They live in all types of habitats, with a lifespan ranging from 18 to 20 years. This animal carries a lot of diseases, including rabies and parasites such as tapeworms and fleas.

The big brown bat is a small, nocturnal flying mammal. They live in colonies and uses echolocation to locate objects while flying at night. The color varies from brown to black. 

They measure from 11 to 13 cm, with a wingspan from 32 to 40 cm, and it weighs from 15 to 26 g.

The species of bat lives in North America and the Carribean.


The American bison is a large species of mammal from North America. They are also commonly called the American buffalo, although this is not quite correct. 

Their color is dark brown and gets darker in summer and lighter in winter. They measure from 2 to 2.8 m and weigh from 318 to 1,000 kg. 

The bison is a herbivore and eats grasses and sedges. They live in river valleys, grasslands, semi-arid lands, prairies, and plains. 

Their lifespan is 15 years in the wild and 25 years in captivity. They are no longer classed as an endangered species.


Black Bear

The American black bear is a midsize mammal from North America. Their color is not always black but can be brown, tan, or even blonde. 

They measure from 130 to 190 cm and weigh from 200 to 300 kg. The black bear is an omnivore and has a varied diet.  This consists mostly of fish, mammals, insects, grasses, roots, and berries. 

This black bear is broadly distributed in forest habitats, with an average lifespan of twenty years.

Black Rat

The black rat is a nocturnal rodent that lives in every continent in the world except for Antarctica. 

Their color ranges from black to light brown with a lighter color on the underbody. They measure from 12.75 to 18.25 cm and weigh from 75 to 230 g. 

Black rats are omnivores and eat seeds, stems, fruit, leaves, and fungi. They live in cliffs, rocks, ground, trees, and urban areas. 

Their lifespan is 12 months and are considered pests by farmers. 


The bobcat is a nocturnal and elusive, midsize wildcat related to the lynx. Their appearance is like a big domestic cat with a bobbed tail. 

Their color can range from grayish brown to red, with a white underbody. They measure from 47 to 125 cm and weigh from 8 to 9 kg. 

The bobcat is a carnivore and eats raccoons, squirrels, rodents, rabbits, birds, reptiles, skunks, and sometimes even deer. 

They have extraordinary night vision and can live in all types of habitats across the central section of North America. Their lifespan ranges from 10 to 12 years.


Brown Rat

The brown rat is a rodent that lives all over the world. Their color is brown with a lighter color on the underbody. 

The brown rat measures from 15 to 28 cm and weigh from 140 to 500 g. 

The brown rat is an omnivore, eating seeds, nuts, grains, fruits, eggs, birds, mice, small rabbits, fish, and insects. 

They live in forests, urban and suburban areas, and have a lifespan of two years.

California Sea Lion

The California sea lion is a species of eared seal native to the western regions of North America. 

Their habitat ranges from southeast Alaska to central Mexico and includes the Gulf of California. 

Males are larger than females, with males weighing up to 350 kilograms, while females up to 100 kilograms. 

California sea lions can be found laid out on sandy or rocky beaches. 

They feed on fish and various species of squid, but have to be wary of predators including killer whales and great white sharks. 

California sea lions are particularly intelligent.

Common Muskrat

The muskrat is a midsize, mostly nocturnal, semiaquatic rodent from North America. Their colors vary from brown to black, with a lighter underbody. 

Muskrats measure from 40 to 70 cm and weigh from 600 grams up  to 2 kg. Their lifespan is 3 to 4 years.

The muskrat is an omnivore and eats aquatic vegetation, farm and garden plants, roots, pondweed, fruits, vegetables, snails, salamanders, crustaceans, fish, and birds. 

They live in wetlands in the northern part of North America. They are considered as a pest because of the destruction it causes in the places where they live and the diseases that they can carry.



The coyote is a midsize canine, with the look of a domestic dog, and are thinner and smaller than the gray wolf.  Their color is grayish-brown with a white underbody. 

Coyotes measure about 1.5 m (including the tail) and weigh from 6.8 to 21 kg. Their lifespan ranges from ten to fourteen years in the wild and up to twenty one years in captivity.

Coyotes are adaptable and have an extremely varied omnivorous diet.  Their diet includes cactus fruits, flowers, insects, rodents, rabbits, birds, and reptiles. 

They can be found in most habitats across North America.

Photo of coyote

Eastern Chipmunk

The Eastern chipmunk is a solitary animal. Their color is reddish-brown with two white stripes surrounded by black stripes on the side of its back and head, with a fifth black stripe running across the center of its back. The chipmunks underbody has a lighter brown color. 

They measure about 30 cm (including the tail) and weigh from 66 to 150 g. 

The Eastern chipmunk is an omnivore that eats acorns, insects, eggs, mushrooms, snails, nuts, fruits, seeds, berries, and corn. 

They like to live in rocky areas, logs, and bushes in deciduous forests and urban parks. They live in the eastern United States and Southeast Canada, with a lifespan of three years.

Eastern Chipmunk

Eastern Cottontail

The Eastern cottontail is a solitary, mostly nocturnal rabbit that lives in the southeast of the United States, and parts of Central and South America. 

Their color varies from reddish-brown to grayish brown, with a white underbody. They measure about 37 cm and weigh about 1.2 kg. 

The Eastern cottontail is a herbivore that eats various grasses, branches, bark, clover, fruits, and vegetables. Their habitat is mainly grasslands. Their lifespan is three years in the wild and eight years in captivity.

Eastern Harvest Mouse

The Eastern harvest mouse is a species of rodent found in the United States. Their natural habitats are subtropical and tropical seasonally wet or flooded lowland grasslands, swamps and pasture. 

The Eastern harvest mouse typically measures around 107 to 128 mm in body length and are characterized by brown pelage with a dark lateral line. The underbelly and ventral side of the tail are lightly colored than the rest of the body. Females are usually bigger than males. 

On average this species has a very short life span of just nine and a half weeks. They feed primarily on seeds, fruits, and vegetables. They are found in a range spanning from the north to Maryland to the southern tip of Florida and as far west as Texas and Ohio.

Harvest Mouse

Eastern Mole

The Eastern mole is a solitary, midsize mammal from the eastern United States. Their color is dark gray. They measure from 14 to 18 cm and weigh from 40 to 50 g. This carnivore eats worms, insects, larvae, mice, bugs, and small birds. 

Eastern moles live in grasslands and thin forests, with an expected lifespan of six years. 

The Eastern mole digs tunnels in search of food. Although they control the number of insects in a given location they can cause damage to gardens and yards.

Eastern Red Bat

The Eastern red bat is found across North America, and is a species of microbat.  They measure 109 mm (4.3 in) with a weight of just 7 to 13 .  

They have long pointed wings with short ears and a long tail.  

Eastern red bats are very maneuverable and can fly quickly.  They do not hibernate, chosing to stay in the same regions all year.  

They are prioritized as least concern by the IUCN. 

Eastern Small-footed Bat

The Eastern small-footed bat is a nocturnal mammal found in the eastern United States and southeastern Canada. 

Their face, ears, and wings are black, and the rest of the body is grayish brown. They measure from 6.5 to 9.5 cm, with a wingspan ranging from 21 to 25 cm, and weighs from 4 to 8 g. 

The Eastern small-footed bat is an insectivore eating beetles, moths, mosquitoes, and flies. 

They live in forests with caves and rock formations adequate for roosting. 

Their lifespan is 6 to 12 years in the wild, hibernating in winter.

Eastern Spotted Skunk

The Eastern spotted skunks are a small-sized species of skunk that can found inhabiting the Great Plains and Southeastern Woodlands. They can also be found in Canada and the northeastern regions of Mexico. 

The Eastern spotted skunk typically measures between 46 and 68 cm in body length and their body range spans between 0.2 and 1.8 kilograms. Males are usually bigger than females. 

Eastern spotted skunks have four stripes on their back which are broken in a pattern, giving a spotted appearance from which their name comes from. 

They are more active compared to other species of skunks. Their main predators are mostly big cats, owls, and bobcats. 

During wintertime, up to eight skunks can share a burrow underground. Eastern spotted skunks are quite secretive and rare for humans to spot. They do not hibernate but tend to reduce their activity during the winter season greatly.


The elk is one of the largest members of the deer family. They live in the United States and southern Canada.  

Their color varies from tan to dark brown. They measure from 2.1 to 2.4 m in length and weigh between 220 to 330 kg. 

The elk is a herbivore that eats grass, leaves, bark, and brushwood. They live mainly in forests, and have an expected lifespan of ten to thirteen years in the wild.

Evening Bat

The evening bat is a species of vesper bat native to North America. They typically inhabit much of the midwestern and eastern regions of the United States. 

They are a small-sized bat, which weighs approximately 7-15 grams, with forearms spanning from 34 to 38 mm in length. 

The tip of their dorsal hair is light gray, with a brown pelage. The evening bat has robust jaws compared to other insectivorous bats. 

The average lifespan is less than four years, which may explain the higher reproductive output when compared to other bats that live longer.

Fallow Deer

Fallow deer grow to a height of 85-95 cm (33-37 in) at the shoulder, and a length of 140-160 cm (55-63 in).  Their weight is generally between 60-100 kg, although females are smaller and lighter.  

They have a lifespan of 12-16 years in the wild.  They are preyed upon by wolves, bears and cougars.  

Males grow antlers which they use to compete for female does in the rutting season.

Fallow deer

Fox Squirrel

The Eastern fox squirrel is also known as Bryant’s fox squirrel.  The Eastern fox squirrel is the largest species of tree squirrel in North America. 

Their total body length ranges from 45 to 70 cm, with a weight ranging between 500 to 1000 grams. 

They coexist in certain areas with the Eastern gray squirrel, but has more brownish colored fur with darker underparts that make it recognizable. 

The fox squirrel has sharp claws and they have developed strong abdominal muscles to help them climb. 

Fox squirrels have excellent vision and a great sense of smell.

Golden Mouse

The golden mouse has a golden-brown to orange color which gives them their name.

They are approximately 5-8 inches in length with a weight of 15 to 30g.  Their tail is up to 4 inches in length.

Golden mice make their nests on the ground or high in the trees.  Golden mice build their nests usually on the ground as the trees bring a higher risk of predation.

Golden mice will usually abandon their ground nests if they are flooded and build their nests higher up.  This is generally a last resort due to the increase of predators.

Gray Fox

The gray fox is a solitary fox that lives in the southern part of the United States and Mexico.  

Their back has a scattered combination of light and dark gray with sides of reddish-brown and an underbody of white. 

They measure from 76 to 112.5 cm and weigh from 3.6 to 7kg. Their lifespan is sixteen years in the wild and up to twenty years in captivity.

The gray fox is an omnivore and eats mice, birds, voles, rabbits, insects, corn, fruits, nuts, and berries. 

They live in dense forests, in areas with rocky terrain or thick vegetation.

Gray Myotis

The gray bat is a species of microbat native to North America. Their population population has experienced a severe decline due to human disturbance since the 1960s. Gray bats are listed as threatened animals. 

They are characterized by uniformly colored fur, which is usually dark gray on the back. Their body mass is generally between 7 and 16 grams, and they measure 40 mm in body length. 

These bats can be found in Alabama, Arkansas, Kentucky, Missouri, Tennessee, Florida, Georgia, Kansas and Mississippi. 

They are cave-dependent bats, which means that they can be found only in caves. For this reason, disturbance to their cave habitats is extremely detrimental to these bats populations. 

Gray bats migrate in spring. They hibernate during the winter and undergo annual molting. They mainly forage over water, including streams and reservoirs where they feed on night-flying insects that have aquatic larval stages. 

They tend to form very large colonies to maintain body temperature.

Gray Squirrel

The Eastern gray squirrel is a diurnal and solitary animal. The color varies from gray to grayish red, and the underbody is white. 

The Eastern gray squirrel measures from 23 to 30 cm (including the tail) and weigh 400 to 600 g. 

The Eastern gray squirrel is an omnivore and eats nuts, acorns, insects, berries, bird eggs, and seeds. 

The Eastern gray squirrel is an adaptable animal that lives in the trees on the Eastern side of North America. They have an expected lifespan of six years.

Hispid Cotton Rat

The hispid cotton rat can be found in the southern states of North America.  They grow up to 340 mm long with a tail up to 120mm, with a weight up to 225 grams.  

The hispid cotton rat lives in tall-grass areas, nesting in underground burrows or in clumps of grass or piles of brush above ground.  

They construct globe-like nests, which are about 12 cm in diameter made up of weeds and grasses.  

They feed on plant material, but will also eat the eggs of birds that are ground-nesting.  

They are rated as least concern due to large litters which can be up to ten but on average are five.  

They can give birth to as many as nine litters a year, with a gestation period of 27 days.

Hoary Bat

The hoary bat is a nocturnal vesper bat found in parts of North America and Hawaii, where they are a native mammal.

They use echolocation for flying at night and to find food. Their color is dark brown, but the hairs have a white tip. 

They measure from 13 to 15 cm, with a wingspan measuring 40 cm, and a weight of just 20 to 35 g. The hoary bat is the largest species in Canada.

This species of bat insectivore eats moths, but also other insects like beetles, crickets, flies, and bugs. Some of the insects it hunts are considered pests. 

These bats usually roost solitarily on trees, hidden by foliage. They live in coniferous forests and generally hunt over open areas or lake. They have a very long migratory pattern. Their lifespan is about two years.

House Mouse

The house mouse is a secretive and cautious mouse that is sometimes domesticated. 

Their color is gray, black or brown with a lighter underbody. They measure from 7.5 to 10 cm (including the tail) and weigh from 40 to 45g. 

The house mouse is an omnivore eating meat, fruits, seeds, and grains. They tend to live in places where humans live. 

Their lifespan is less than one year in the wild but can be between 2 to 3 years in protected environments.

Indiana Myotis

The Indiana Bat is a midsize, social species of bat found in the eastern part of the United States. 

Their colors vary from dark brown to black. The Indiana bat measures from 4.1 to 4.9 cm and weighs about 7g. 

The Indiana bat is an insectivore and eats flies, moths, bees, wasps, midges, ants, mosquitoes, and beetles. They live in wooded areas, where they can be found roosting in trees. 

During the winter the Indiana bat hangs from ceilings clustered in groups to hibernate. 

Their lifespan is about 14 years and are considered an endangered species.


The jaguarundi is a small wild cat found in North America. They are also known as the eyra, gato Colorado or tigrillo.

These wild cats usually reach between 53 to 77 cm in body length and tend to weigh between 3.5 and 9.1 kilograms. 

They have short legs, a long tail, and short, rounded ears. They can be black, brown or foxy red, and are usually uniform in color. 

The jaguarundi is found in southern states and coastal Mexico. Jaguarundi are primarily diurnal and can climb on trees but prefer to hunt on the ground. 

They feed on small animals they catch, usually small rodents, reptiles, and some birds. They are a solitary creature.

Little Brown Myotis

The little brown bat is a small North American bat. Their colors vary from light tan to dark brown, with a lighter color on its underbody. 

The little brown bat measures from 8 to 9.5 cm and weighs from 5.5 to 12.5 g. 

This insectivore eats mosquitoes, moths, and beetles. The little brown bats live in most of North America. 

They will find any place to roost during the day, such as trees, caves, and rocks. In winter, this bat hibernates in caves. Their lifespan is from 6 to 7 years.

Long-tailed Weasel

The long-tailed weasel is a fearless, aggressive hunter. They are also known as the bridled weasel or the big stoat. 

Their color is reddish-brown with a light yellow underbody, but in cold northern regions they are completely white. 

The long-tailed weasel measures from 23 to 35 cm and weighs from 85 to 267 g. They are carnivores and can attack animals that are twice their size. 

They eat mostly mice, voles, rabbits, chipmunks, birds, eggs, and insects. 

They live in grasslands and thin forests in sub-tropical areas with mild temperatures in the southern states of North America. Their lifespan is up to five years.

Long-tail weasel

Marsh Rabbit

The marsh rabbit is a species of cottontail rabbit found in the Southern and Eastern United States.  They can be found in swamps and marshes of coastal regions.  Unlike most species of rabbit, they are limited to areas with access to water.

They are similar to the Eastern Cottontail, but can be distinguished by a smaller tail, legs and ears.  They weigh up to 1.6kg and a length of 17 inches (43cm).

Marsh rabbits feed on leaves and aquatic and marsh plants such as marsh pennywort, water hyacinth, wild potato, amaryllis, greenbrier vine and centella.

In Alabama they can be found in and around Mobile Bay.

Marsh Rice Rat

The marsh rice rat, as its name suggests, normally inhabits marshy areas.  They can also be found where there is an adequate food supply of grasses and sedges.  

The marsh rice rat needs a habitat where they can find protective cover.  

They are approximately 245mm in length and weigh up to 70g.

They are omnivores, eating equal amounts of plant and animal matter to make up their diet.  They eat marsh grasses, rice, fungus and green vegetation.  

The animal part of their diet consists of insects, small crabs, fish, snails and other small animals.  

Meadow Jumping Mouse

The meadow jumping mouse is a solitary and mostly nocturnal North American rodent. They can jump 8 feet or more when they are disturbed. 

Their color is light brown, with a thick dark brown stripe on its back and a white underbody. They are a small-sized rodent with very long tails and feet. They measure from 18 to 24 cm (including the tail) and weigh from 11.5 to 35 g. 

The meadow jumping mouse is an omnivore eating mostly seeds, insects, and fruits. 

The meadow jumping mouse lives mostly in grasslands, thin forests and humid areas in the northern part of North America. 

Their lifespan is less than a year in the wild, but up to five years in captivity.

Mexican Free-tailed Bat

The Mexican free-tailed bat is also referred to as the Brazilian free-tailed bat.  They are a medium-sized bat which is regarded as one of the most common species of mammals in North America. 

They tend to roost in huge numbers in a few locations. These bats tend to be typically 9 cm in length and weigh around 7 to 12 grams. 

They are characterized by wide, rounded ears which almost meet at the front of their face. Males have larger canines than females and are usually larger. 

Mexican free-tailed bats are found in most of the southern regions of the United States.

They primarily roost in caves, with some very large colonies consisting of millions of bats in Texas.

Nine-banded Armadillo

The nine-banded armadillo is also called the long-nosed armadillo. They usually weigh between 2.5 to 6.5 kg and can reach 38-58cm in length. 

They live in various habitats from forests to more arid areas. Nine-banded armadillos do not have a strong tolerance to cold-weather but can survive in colder temperatures for several days by remaining in a burrow. 

They are mainly nocturnal and solitary animals. Nine-banded armadillos are mainly insectivores, but can sometimes eat small amphibians and reptiles. 

Unlike the three-banded armadillo, this species cannot roll itself into a ball but can jump high when disturbed.

North American River Otter

The river otter is a smart, semiaquatic mammal found in the northern states.

The river otter has short, very dense fur. Their colors vary from gray to brown, with a lighter underbody. 

They measure from 66 to 107 cm and weighs from 5 to 14 kg. 

River otters are carnivores eating fish, turtles, frogs, crayfish, and insects. 

They live in aquatic habitats in the northern part of North America. Their lifespan is eight to nine years in the wild and fifteen to twenty years in captivity.

Northern Long-eared Myotis

The Northern long-eared myotis is a species of bat.  They use echolocation to navigate while flying. 

Their color varies from yellowish light brown to black, and measure about 8.6 cm and weigh from 5 to 8 g. 

This insectivore eats mostly moths, beetles, flies, and leafhoppers. They live in boreal forests (taiga) in the eastern, central part of North America. Their lifespan is about 18.5 years. 

They are an endangered species due to a sickness that is killing the species.

Northern Short-tailed Shrew

The Northern short-tailed shrew is a mammal found in the northern parts of North America. 

Their color is dark gray, with a lighter shade of gray on the underbody. They measure from 11 to 14 cm and weigh from 15 to 30 g. 

The Northern short-tailed shrew is a carnivore eating insects, salamanders, worms, mice, snails, seeds, voles, and fungi. 

They can live in many habitats, including grasslands and deciduous and coniferous forests, with an expected lifespan of 1 to 3 years.

Northern Yellow Bat

The Northern yellow bat has a pelage of orange-yellow with brown or grayish tips.  

They are one of the larger bats, weighing between 14 and 20g, with a total length of 5 inches.  

Alabama rates the Northern yellow bat as critically imperiled.  The Northern yellow bat is one of the largest bats in Alabama, second only to the hoary bat.  

There are only two records of the bat in Alabama, one in 1969 and again in 2000.

Norway Rat

The Norway rat is a nocturnal and cautious mammal that lives everywhere in the world except for Antarctica. 

The color of the Norway rat varies from gray to brown with a lighter color on the underbody. 

They measure about 28 cm and weigh from 140 to 500g. 

Norway rats are omnivores and eat seeds, grains, nuts, fruits, insects, and small animals. 

This species of rat lives in forests and urban areas. Their lifespan is expected to be between 1 to 3 years.

Norway rat


Nutria are sometimes misidentified as a large muskrat, although they are over five times the size.  The tail of a muskrat, like a beaver lays flat, although more triangular.  

Nutria have long white whiskers unlike beavers and muskrats which have black whiskers.

Nutria can weigh up to 20 lbs with a body length up to 2 ft.  Their tails are long at 1-1.5 ft long, and have webbed hind feet.

They can be destructive, causing damage through burrowing.  The damage can erode river banks, cause flood-control levees to breech and weaken.  

Nutria also cause damage to the plants in their environment as well.  They eat up to 25% of their body weight per day but destroy and waste approximately ten times as much again.  

The damage they cause can threaten rare populations of other animals which rely on these habitats, as well as livelihoods of agricultural farms.


Perdido Key Beach Mouse

The Perdido Key beach mouse is a critically endangered species of beach mouse.  

They have large ears and eyes for their body size.  They measure up to 150mm and weigh between 13-16g.  

They are lighter in color than the Alabama beach mouse, but share the same physical characteristics.  

There are very few Perdido Key beach mice in the wild, following storms and hurricanes over the last few decades.  The have been preyed upon by cats, drastically reducing their numbers.


The raccoon is a nocturnal midsize mammal.  Their color is gray, brown or black.  They have a white face with a black mask around its eyes. 

They measure from 40 to 70 cm and weigh from 5 to 26 kg. 

The raccoon is an opportunistic omnivore eating fruit, plants, oak nuts, insects, worms, rodents frogs, nuts, eggs, and crayfish. 

Raccoons live in forests, suburban, and urban areas in the Central and southern states of North America. The average lifespan of a raccoon is two to three years.


Rafinesque’s Big-eared Bat

Rafinesque’s big-eared bat is also known as the Southeastern big-eared bat.  They are a species of vesper bat which is native to the United States. 

The name is given by the large ears that characterize this bat. They are considered to be medium-sized bats with a length of about 7.5 to 10 centimeters and a weight of 6-13 grams. 

The pelage of this bat is mainly gray on the upper side and white on the underside. The ears are pinkish-brown. According to some sources, the lifespan of this bat is about ten years. 

These bats usually inhabit coastal plains as well as mountainous areas like the Great Smoky Mountains National Park in the United States. They are nocturnal insectivores and locate their prey by echolocation.

Red Fox

The red fox is a midsize fox that lives in the northern region of North America. 

The color varies from light yellow to red, with dark legs, and a white underbody. They measure from 45 to 90 cm and weigh from 2.2 to 14 kg. Their lifespan is between two to five years. 

The red fox is an omnivore eating grasses, fruits, corn, apples, oak nuts, cherries, berries, mice, birds, rabbits, squirrels, crickets, grasshoppers, beetles, caterpillars, and crayfish. 

The red fox lives in forests, grasslands, mountains, deserts, and suburban areas.


Also known as the ringtail, the ringtailed cat is a species of the raccoon family native to North America. They are also known as the civet cat or bassarisk. 

Ringtails are small-sized mammals that can measure about 30-42 cm in body length with a tail averaging 31 to 44 cm in length. They usually weigh between 0.7 to 1.5 kilograms. 

Their fur is dark brown with light underparts. They are characterized by long whiskers and a body that resembles that of a cat. Their tail has rings of color with black and white rings. 

Ringtails are primarily nocturnal and solitary. They prefer rocky desert habitats where they feed on small vertebrates, berries and insects.

Silver-haired Bat

The silver-haired bat is a nocturnal, solitary mammal from the central part of North America. They use echolocation when flying to guide them and to find food.

Their color is normally black, but can sometimes be dark brown, with gray tips to their fur.  

They measure about 10 cm and weighs from 8 to 12 g. This insectivore eats flies, leafhoppers, moths, mosquitoes, beetles, bugs and ants, which they find in forest habitats.

Their average lifespan is 12 years, and they migrate to warmer climates in winter.

Smoky Shrew

The smoky shrew is a nocturnal mammal that lives in eastern North America. 

They normally use tunnels from other moles or shrews, rarely digging their own. 

Their color is grayish-brown with a lighter underbody. They measure about 11 cm with a weight of 5g. 

This insectivore eats beetles, spiders, bugs, snails, insects, fungi, centipedes, worms, and larvae. 

They live in coniferous and deciduous forests, marshes, swamps, and grasslands, with a lifespan of 14 to 17 months.

Southeastern Myotis

The Southeastern myotis is a bat found throughout the southeast of the United States.  

They weigh between 5-8g and has a wingspan up to 11 inches.  Female bats are larger, with a length of 97mm, compared to 89mm for males.  They are gray to bright orange-brown, with males being darker than females.  They have whitish tips at the end of their dark gray fur.  

They have long toe-hairs which distinguishes them from other species of bats.  The hair can be seen extending past the ends of their claws.

Southeastern Pocket Gopher

Northern Pocket Gopher

The Southeastern pocket gopher is a rodent that lives in Alabama, Florida, and Georgia. They are a very small gopher, with fur-lined cheeks that are used to store food. 

Their powerful incisors are used to chew through roots they find underground. This species can have a life-span of up to 5 years. 

The Southeastern pocket gopher can reach a total length of 260 mm and a weight of up to 176 grams. 

This species is sometimes referred at as sandy mounders by the locals because their location can be easily spotted by the sandy mounds formed by the construction of their tunnels.

Southeastern Shrew

The Southeastern shrew can be found among forests, woodland, scrub, brushlands, marshes, bogs, shrub, fields and meadows.  

They are very small, with a size up to 10 cm, and a weight of just 4g.  They have a brown fur with a reddish-brown tint, and molt twice a year.  They live up to a maximum of eighteen months. They have a litter of up to five young.

They feed on slugs, snails, centipedes, vegetation, insect larvae and spiders.  

They live in the underground burrows of other animals, venturing out to find food. 

Southern Flying Squirrel

The Southern flying squirrel is a nocturnal mammal that glides from one tree to the next with the aid of membranes between its front and hind legs. 

They live in the western regions of North America. Their color is grayish brown, with a white underbody. 

They measure from 21 to 26cm (including the tail) and weigh from 45 to 82 g. 

The Southern flying squirrel is an omnivore and eats nuts, seeds, spiders, acorns, fungi, eggs, insects, shrubs, buds, mushrooms, flowers, and fruits. 

They live in deciduous forests, with a lifespan of five to six years in the wild and ten years in captivity.

Southern Short-tailed Shrew

The Southern short-tailed shrew has gray fur, with a brown or silver tint.  They measure about 11 cm and weigh up to 8g.  

They have a short tail, which is always less than half of the length of the body and the head.  They have a short snout and ears that are small and covered by their fur.

The short-tailed shrew is excellent at digging and burrowing.  They can burrow at a rate of 30 centimeters per minute, three times their body size.  They have wide feet at the front, and use these feet along with their snout and their head to burrow quickly.

The burrow of the short-tailed shrew is at two different levels.  There is a deep level between 40 – 60 cm below the ground, and another higher level a few centimeters beneath the ground.

Their diet consists of vegetables, insects, centipedes, spiders, vertebrates and crustaceans.

Striped Skunk

The striped skunk is a mostly nocturnal species of skunk found in the central states of North America. 

Their color can be black, gray, or brown but always has a white stripe on their back running from head to tail. 

They measure from 52 to 77 cm and weigh between 1.8 to 4.5 kg. Striped skunks are omnivores and eat crickets, grasshoppers, beetles, caterpillars, mice, voles, eggs, and small birds. 

The striped skunk lives in open areas such as grasslands or thin forests in southern Canada, the United States, and northern Mexico. Their lifespan is up to seven years.

Swamp Rabbit

The swamp rabbit is a large-sized species of cottontail rabbit. They can usually be found in swamps and the wetlands of the southern regions of the United States, including Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Tennessee, Texas, Arkansas, and South Carolina. 

They are also called marsh rabbits or cane-cutter rabbits. 

Their dimensions can vary from 1.8 kg to 2.5 kg and around 45 cm to 55 cm in length.

They spend much of their time in depressions near the water. The swamp rabbit is hunted for fur, meat, and sport and is the second most-commonly killed rabbit in the United States. 

They are not quick swimmers but elude predators in the water by laying still surrounded by plants.

Virginia Opossum

The Virginia opossum is the only marsupial found in North America. Their habitats can vary and are one of the species to thrive in urban areas.  They prefer living close to water sources. 

This medium-sized animal measures between 13-37cm in length and can weigh between 0.3-3.7 kg. They have rather short legs and typically gray or brownish fur. This animal is known to act as if they are dead as protection against predators.

The Virginia opossum is an omnivore eating almost anything: carcasses, garbage, plants, animals, and insects. They live in deciduous forests, farming areas, marshes, swamps, and wooded streams. Their lifespan is four years.

White-tailed Deer

The white-tailed deer is a mammal found in the central part of the American continent. In North America, they live in most of Mexico and the United States and southern parts of Canada. 

Their color is grayish-brown in the winter and reddish-brown in the summer. They have patches of white on their face, underbody, and tail. 

The white-tailed deer measures from 95 to 220 cm and weighs from 45 to 68 kg. 

White-tailed deer are hebivores eating grass, corn, leaves, nuts, twigs, fruits, and fungi. 

They adapt well to different habitats and live in grasslands, forests, farmlands, and deserts. Their lifespan is four to five years.

White-tailed Deer

Wild Boar

Also known as the wild hog and the razorback, wild boar are an invasive species bought in to the United States in the 1500s.  

The size and weight of a wild boar depends on their environment.  In Asia, some get as large as grizzly bears, but in North America, they reach sizes up to 6 ft in length and up to 3 ft in height.  Larger males have been found measuring over 7 ft in length.  

They have a stout, barrel-like body, with short legs, and a long head with a short neck.  

They range in color, with solid or mixed coloration patterns.  The most common include black, white or reddish-brown.  


The woodchuck, also known as the groundhog or the red monk, is typical of the eastern regions of the United States, Canada, and Alaska. 

Males are usually bigger than females, but their weight changes considerably across different seasons. Generally, they measure 42 to 68.5 cm, although their weight ranges during the year from 2 to 6.5 kilos. 

They are a diurnal animal that on average lives two to three years. They enjoy staying in the open air, and they are very territorial animals that live in colonies.