Which Mammals Live In Colorado?


Colorado is one of the states that I haven’t travelled to yet but when I do I know that I will spend a lot of time looking for animals in the Rocky Mountains. In this guide I put together a list of all the mammals that you can find in Colorado.

With the Rocky Mountains taking center stage there are many species of mammals that can be found in Colorado. From large elk and moose to many species of mice, Colorado is a dream state for spotting animals. The state mammal is the Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep.

If you want to find out which mammals you can see in Colorado then please read on.

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Abert’s Squirrel

The Abert’s Squirrel is usually 46 to 58 cm long and weighs around 500 grams. This squirrel is native to the Rocky Mountains in the United States and can be found in the northern area of the Sierra Madre Occidental, Arizona, Grand Canyon, and New Mexico. 

The Abert’s squirrel takes its name from the American naturalist John James Abert. 

These squirrels primarily feed on seeds of the Mexican pinyon and the ponderosa pine. The most distinguishable trait of this species is the long hair tufts and their dark coloration, with a noticeable reddish stripe on the back.

American Badger

The American badger is one of many carnivorous North American mammals. Their color is dark gray with a white stripe on its back, white patches on its eyes, and a white underbody. 

The American badger measures from 60 to 75 cm and weighs from 6.3 to 8.6 kg. This carnivore eats mice, squirrels, groundhogs, moles, marmots, and prairie dogs. 

They live in grasslands, prairies, marshes, and farms. Their lifespan is four to fourteen years in the wild and twenty six in captivity.

American Black Bear

The American black bear is a midsize mammal from North America. Their color is not always black but can be brown, tan, or even blonde. 

They measure from 130 to 190 cm and weigh from 200 to 300 kg. The black bear is an omnivore and has a varied diet.  This consists mostly of fish, mammals, insects, grasses, roots, and berries. 

This black bear is broadly distributed in forest habitats, with an average lifespan of twenty years.

American Hog-nosed Skunk

The American hog-nosed skunk is larger than all other skunks from North America. They have a shorter tail but larger body than most skunks.  Their body length is up to 80 cm with a tail up to 40 cm and can weigh up to 4.5 kg.

The American hog-nosed skunk has a white stripe along their back and tail.  Their bodies are black, and their fur is coarser than all other skunks.  

The American hog-nosed skunk has a nose different from other skunks, which is protruding, long and wide, much like a pigs nose.

American Marten

The American marten is a small, solitary, and nocturnal member of the Mustelidae family. 

Their color ranges from yellowish-brown to black. They measure 32 to 54 cm, and weigh from 0.5 to 1.3 kg.  

American Marten

The American Marten eats smaller animals such as squirrels, birds, and mice, but will also eat fruits and nuts. 

They are widely scattered in northern, mature conifer forests throughout the continent. They can be found both on the ground and living in trees, with an estimated lifespan of less than fifteen years.

American Mink

The American mink can be found in northern regions of North America. The color varies from brown to black, and they have a white patch on the throat. 

They measure from 31 to 45 cm and weigh from 400 to 1580 g.  Their lifespan is three to four years in the wild and ten years in captivity.

American mink are carnivores eating muskrats, snakes, mice, fish, rabbits, chipmunks, birds, and frogs. They live in wet areas like swamps and marshlands or near water bodies.

American Pika

The American pika is a small mammal that lives in the mountainous regions of North America. They are a relative to rabbits and hares. 

The color of the American pika is grayish brown. They measure from 16.2 to 21.6 cm and weigh about 170 g. Pikas are herbivores eating grasses, thistles, sedges, and fireweed. 

They live in rocky areas and cliffs in mountainous regions, with a lifespan of seven years.

American Pygmy Shrew 

The American pygmy shrew is a small mammal from the north of the continent.  Their color ranges from reddish-brown to grayish brown, and the pygmy shrew has a light color on their underbody.  

This species of shrew measures up to 5 cm and weighs from just 2 to 4.5 g. 

The American pygmy shrew is an insectivore and will eat insects and larvae.  They live in coniferous and deciduous forests, with a lifespan of about 16 to 17 months.

American Red Squirrel

The red squirrel is a small, solitary, and diurnal animal. Their color is gray, red or dark brown, with white on its underbody, and sometimes has black stripes on its sides. 

They measure from 28 to 35 cm (including the tail) and weighs from 200 to 282 g. 

The red squirrel eats sunflower seeds and all types of nuts. They are arboreal, living in coniferous, deciduous, and mixed forests, with a lifespan of 5 to 10 years.

American Water Shrew

The American water shrew is a solitary and semiaquatic species of shrew. Their color changes throughout the year, from light brown in the summer to black in the winter. 

The water shrew measures from 13 to 17 cm and weighs from 8 to 18 g.  They live in streams and ponds, with a lifespan of about 18 months.

This species of water shrew is an omnivore eating aquatic insects, small fish, plants, and snails.

Big Brown Bat 

The big brown bat is an insectivore that eats mostly beetles, but also consumes other flying insects like moths, flies, and wasps.

They live in all types of habitats, with a lifespan ranging from 18 to 20 years. This animal carries a lot of diseases, including rabies and parasites such as tapeworms and fleas.

The big brown bat is a small, nocturnal flying mammal. They live in colonies and uses echolocation to locate objects while flying at night. The color varies from brown to black. 

They measure from 11 to 13 cm, with a wingspan from 32 to 40 cm, and it weighs from 15 to 26 g.

The species of bat lives in North America and the Carribean.

Big Free-tailed Bat 

The big free-tailed bat is a species of bat which is native to North America. Their ranges are various and extensive. 

The big free-tailed bats do not migrate and prefer to live at elevations that are below 2600 meters above sea level. 

These bats are large, with a wingspan of about 417 to 436 mm in length and a body mass of 20.6 grams on average. 

Their fur is glossy and can vary in color ranging from reddish-brown to dark brown and blackish. They are rapid in the air. As with many other bats, big free-tailed bats are nocturnal insectivores.

Black-tailed Jackrabbit

The black-tailed jackrabbit is also known as the American desert hare and is common to the western region of the United States and Mexico. 

They live at high elevations, up to 3000 meters above sea level. They generally measure around 61 cm in length and weigh about 1.4 to 2.7 kilograms. Females of this species tend to be larger than males.

Black-tailed jackrabbits are characterized by large ears which are tipped with black on the outer surfaces. Their fur is usually grayish-brown with white underparts. The diet of the jackrabbit is mainly  shrubs, small trees, and grasses.

Bobcat

The bobcat is a nocturnal and elusive, midsize wildcat related to the lynx. Their appearance is like a big domestic cat with a bobbed tail. 

Their color can range from grayish brown to red, with a white underbody. They measure from 47 to 125 cm and weigh from 8 to 9 kg. 

The bobcat is a carnivore and eats raccoons, squirrels, rodents, rabbits, birds, reptiles, skunks, and sometimes even deer. 

They have extraordinary night vision and can live in all types of habitats across the central section of North America. Their lifespan ranges from 10 to 12 years.

Bighorn Sheep 

The bighorn sheep is a species of sheep found in the western states of North America. 

Their colors are light gray or dark brown. They measure from 90 to 105 cm and weigh from 70 to 140 kg. 

Bighorn sheep eat grass, sedges, willow, and sage. They live in mountainous regions with small ledges and have adapted well to their surrounding. Their lifespan is between nine to fourteen years.

Black-tailed Prairie Dog

The black-tailed prairie dog can weigh between 700 to 1400 grams and measure 36 to 43 cm in length. 

The black-tailed prairie dog is a species of rodent and can be found in the Great Plains of North America.

 In contrast to the other prairie dog species, the black-tailed prairie dog does not hibernate. 

Their fur is tan in color, with the underparts being lighter. The tails present darker tips which give the name to the species.

Botta’s Pocket Gopher 

The Botta’s pocket gopher is also known as the valley pocket gopher. The name comes from the naturalist Paul-Emile Botta, who collected mammals from California. 

The Botta’s pocket gopher is a medium-sized rodent with males larger than females. 

Their fur changes in color in different seasons, getting darker in colder temperatures. 

The Botta’s pocket gopher length ranges from 18-27 cm with a weight of 160-250 grams. These gophers usually live at higher elevations than other species of gopher.

Black-footed Ferret 

The black-footed ferret is also referred to as the American polecat or prairie dog hunter.  They are a species of mustelid native to North America, and are listed as endangered animals. 

They were previously considered extinct, but a captive-breeding program successfully reintroduced this species to their native habitat. 

Their body length is between 500 to 533 mm with a tail of 114 to 127 mm, and they weigh between 650 to 1400 grams. 

They have a slender and long body with black feet, ears, tails, and part of their faces. Their neck is long and they have stout, short legs.

Their pelage is yellowish-blond. The black-footed ferret is nocturnal and solitary.  They feed mainly on prairie dogs which they hunt in their burrows.

Brown Bear 

The brown bear is a large mammal that lives in northern regions.  They are also known as the grizzly bear. 

Their color ranges from dark brown to light yellowish-brown. They measure from 1.4 to 2.8 m and weigh from 152 to 217 kg. 

Grizzly bears are omnivores and will eat roots, fruit, grass, insects, carcasses, and fish. 

They live in many habitats, including mountain forests, ice fields, and edges of deserts. Their lifespan is twenty to thirty five years.

Brush Mouse

The brush mouse is a medium sized rodent with a long tail.  They measure a total length of 22cm with half of their total length being taken up by their tail.  

They live in areas with plenty of ground cover from shrubs and trees.  Brush mice prefer to live on slopes with hillsides, canyons and mountainsides being their preferred habitat.  Some slopes where they have been found are over forty five degrees gradient.

There are currently four subspecies of brush mice in North America.  

Bushy-tailed Woodrat

The bushy-tailed woodrat is a rodent from the western regions. Their color is brown scattered with small black spots and white on the underbody. 

The bushy-tailed woodrat measures from 28 to 46 cm (including the tail) and weigh about 590 g. 

This omnivore eats grasses, leaves, cacti, twigs, nuts, needles, seeds, mushrooms, arthropods, and shoots. 

They live in rocky places, such as cliffs, canyons, or rocky slopes. Their lifespan is 5.8 years in captivity.

Canadian Lynx 

The Canadian lynx is a diurnal and solitary wildcat. Their paws have thicker so that they can travel through snow. 

Their color ranges from grayish-yellow to reddish-brown, and they have a black mark on the tip of their ears and tail. 

They measure from 76 to 110 cm and weigh from 8 to 18 kg. They usually live in cold, dense forests, with a lifespan of 15 years.

This carnivore eats mostly snowshoe hares but also feeds on birds, fish, rats, and sometimes deer.

California Myotis 

The California myotis is a species of vesper bat found in British Columbia in Canada and the western regions of the United States. 

They are small-sized bats, usually measuring around 70 to 94 mm in length and weighing around 3.3 to 5.4 grams. 

Their fur is pale and dull colored. They have medium-sized ears and very small feet. They are characterized by a lighter face mask than other bats. 

The California myotis usually roost in the bark of trees or rock crevices. They fly at rather slow speed compared to other species of bats.

Canyon mouse

The canyon mouse is named after its preferred habitat.  They like to live around rocky deserts and canyons, but can be found from below sea level to elevated forested areas.

They are a small rodent that can grow up to a total length of 30cm.  Their weight is approximately 17g.  

The canyon mouse can be many colors including brown, gray or black.  They have large black eyes and white whiskers.  

The canyon mouse eats vegetation and insects.  They will cache food to eat during the winter months. 

Cinereus Shrew

The cinereus shrew is also known as the masked or common shrew.  They are a small, nocturnal, and solitary animal.  Their color is grayish-brown with a lighter grayish color in the underbody. 

The cinereous shrew measures about 9 cm, with a weight of just 5g and a lifespan of just 14 months.

The cinereus shrew is a carnivore, eating insect larvae, ants, grasshoppers, crickets, spiders, worms, snails, small rodents, and salamanders. 

They live in grasslands, forests, riverbanks, lakeshores, and tundra in the northern part of North America.

Cliff Chipmunk

The cliff chipmunk lives on cliff walls and boulder fields which are close to pinyon-juniper woodlands.

They can be found at altitudes up to 12,000 feet above sea level and can scale cliffs with ease.  

The cliff chipmunk does not hibernate and does not store body fat.  Instead they store food for the winter months which they will revisit during the cold.

The cliff chipmunk grows to a length of 25cm with a weight of 70g.  Due to their amazing climbing abilities, the cliff chipmunk does not have many predators.  Because of this adaptation, the cliff chipmunk has a life expectancy of up to twelve and a half years.

Colorado Chipmunk

The Colorado chipmunk can be found throughout Colorado, as well as Arizona, Utah and northern New Mexico.

They have a length of 12 cm with a weight of 54g.  They are good climbers, and can be found eating seeds at the top of trees.  Although they are good climbers, they spend their time mostly on the ground.  

They can be found in coniferous and ponderosa forests, generally at an elevation between 1850 and 2500 meters.

The Colorado chipmunk is herbivorous, with a diet consisting of berries, seeds, carrion, insects and birds eggs which they will take when climbing.  They will cache their food for later consumption.

Cougar 

The cougar is a solitary, elusive, and mostly nocturnal wildcat. They are also known as the puma, mountain lion, and catamount. 

Their color is grayish-brown with white on the underbody.  Cougars measure about 2.4 m long (including a long tail) and weigh from 53 to 100 kg. 

Photo of cougar
Cougar caught in mid leap

Cougars are carnivores with their main prey being deer.  They will also prey on elk, coyotes, mountain goats, beavers, moose, and wild sheep. Smaller cougars will prey on smaller mammals than larger cougars. 

They can live in an enormous range of habitats in North America.  They have a lifespan that ranges between 8 to 13 years.

Coyote 

The coyote is a midsize wild canine, with the look of a domestic dog, and are thinner and smaller than the gray wolf.  Their color is grayish-brown with a white underbody. 

Coyotes measure about 1.5 m (including the tail) and weigh from 6.8 to 21 kg. Their lifespan ranges from ten to fourteen years in the wild and up to twenty one years in captivity.

Coyotes are adaptable and have an extremely varied omnivorous diet.  Their diet includes cactus fruits, flowers, insects, rodents, rabbits, birds, and reptiles. 

They can be found in most habitats across North America.

Deer Mouse

The deer mouse is a small and reclusive rodent. Their color (which resembles that of a deer) varies from gray to brown, with a white underbody. 

They measure from 8 to 10 cm (without the tail) and weigh about 20g. 

The deer mouse is an omnivore feeding on a wide variety of foods, such as seeds, nuts, fruits, and insects. 

They live in many different habitats including forests, mountains, deserts, grasslands, and tropical regions throughout most of North America. 

Their lifespan is eight years in captivity and less than a year in the wild. They can carry viruses and bacteria that cause diseases to humans, such as Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS).

Desert Cottontail 

The desert cottontail is also referred to as Audubon’s cottontail and is a species of rabbit found in North America. 

Unlike European rabbits, this species does not dig burrows and are not particularly social with other individuals. They occupy burrows dug by other mammals and are not usually active in the middle of the day. 

These rabbits have large ears and a grayish-brown rounded tail. They typically measure 36 to 42 cm in length and weigh 700-1200 grams. Females are generally larger than males. 

Desert cottontails are found in the Western regions of the United States, including Texas, Montana, the Great Plains, Nevada, and California. They are also found in Baja California in Mexico. 

They mainly feed on grass, even though they may eat other plants such as cacti.

Desert Woodrat

The desert woodrat does not only live in the desert but also in sage scrub habitats.  

Desert woodrats make a nest that protects them from the sun and predators.

Also known as the desert packrat, they make a nest from almost anything they can find, including leaves, twigs, metal and plastic.  

The desert woodrat has been helpful to scientists studying plants from the past.  Desert woodrats prefer to nest in crevices and caves and use a section of their nest as their toilet.  

This has allowed scientist to study plants from as long as 40,000 years ago as the nests have been preserved.

Dwarf Shrew

The dwarf shrew is one of the smallest shrews in North America and also one of the smallest mammals.

They have a length up to 105 mm and a weight of 3.2 grams.  

They can be found in the Rocky Mountain area, the Great Plains, Arizona and New Mexico.

Not much is known about the dwarf shrew with only eighteen specimens collected prior to 1966.

Eastern Cottontail

The Eastern cottontail is a solitary, mostly nocturnal rabbit that lives in the southeast of the United States, and parts of Central and South America. 

Their color varies from reddish-brown to grayish brown, with a white underbody. They measure about 37 cm and weigh about 1.2 kg. 

The Eastern cottontail is a herbivore that eats various grasses, branches, bark, clover, fruits, and vegetables. Their habitat is mainly grasslands. Their lifespan is three years in the wild and eight years in captivity.

Eastern Fox Squirrel 

The Eastern fox squirrel, also referred to as Bryant’s fox squirrel is the largest species of tree squirrel of North America. 

Their total body length ranges from 45 to 70 cm, with a weight ranging between 500 to 1000 grams. 

They coexist, in certain areas, with the Eastern gray squirrel, but have more brownish colored fur with darker underparts which make it distinguishable. 

Fox squirrels’ claws are sharp, and they have developed strong abdominal musculature to help them with climbing. Fox squirrels have excellent vision and a great sense of vision and smell.

Eastern Mole

The Eastern mole is a solitary, midsize mammal from the eastern United States. Their color is dark gray. They measure from 14 to 18 cm and weigh from 40 to 50 g. This carnivore eats worms, insects, larvae, mice, bugs, and small birds. 

Eastern moles live in grasslands and thin forests, with an expected lifespan of six years. 

The Eastern mole digs tunnels in search of food. Although they control the number of insects in a given location they can cause damage to gardens and yards.

Eastern Red Bat

The Eastern red bat is found across North America, and is a species of microbat.  They measure 109 mm (4.3 in) with a weight of just 7 to 13 .  They have pointed, long wings, short ears and a long tail.  

Eastern red bats are very maneuverable and can fly quickly.  They do not hibernate, chosing to stay in the same regions all year.  They are prioritized as least concern by the IUCN. 

Eastern Spotted Skunk

The Eastern spotted skunks are a small-sized species of skunk that can found inhabiting the Great Plains and Southeastern Woodlands. They can also be found in Canada and the northeastern regions of Mexico. 

The Eastern spotted skunk typically measures between 46 and 68 cm in body length and their body range spans between 0.2 and 1.8 kilograms. Males are usually bigger than females. 

Eastern spotted skunks have four stripes on their back which are broken in a pattern, giving a spotted appearance from which their name comes from. 

They are more active compared to other species of skunks. Their main predators are mostly big cats, owls, and bobcats. 

During wintertime, up to eight skunks can share a burrow underground. Eastern spotted skunks are quite secretive and rare for humans to spot. They do not hibernate but tend to reduce their activity during the winter season greatly.

Eastern Woodrat

The Eastern woodrat can be found in areas that are wooded where they live in the brush, hedgerows and outcrops.  

Their dens can grow very large, with dens up to five feet recorded.  The dens are home to only one woodrat at a time, but other woodrats will use the den afterwards.  

Woodrats will add sticks and other parts to the den which causes their huge size.  Females will nest together when they have their young.

The Eastern woodrat has many predators including snakes, weasels, coyotes, skunks and owls.

Males can grow up to 450mm in length including the tail with a weight of 385g.  Females are slightly smaller.

Elk 

The elk is one of the largest members of the deer family. They live in the United States and southern Canada.  

Their color varies from tan to dark brown. They measure from 2.1 to 2.4 m in length and weigh between 220 to 330 kg. 

The elk is a herbivore that eats grass, leaves, bark, and brushwood. They live mainly in forests, and have an expected lifespan of ten to thirteen years in the wild.

Ermine

The ermine is a solitary weasel that lives in the northern part of the continent. 

Their color is dark brown on the back and white on the underbody during the summer. In winter, their color changes to almost pure white. 

Ermine
Ermine

The ermine measures from 17 to 32 cm and weigh about 260 g.  The ermine is a carnivore that eats mainly rodents but will also eat birds, fish, amphibians, small reptiles, and insects. 

They live in taigas and tundras, with a lifespan of four to six years in the wild.

Fringed Myotis

The fringe myotis can be found in the western United States and British Columbia.  They are a species of vesper bat and are similar to the Western long-eared myotis.  

They are known as the fringed myotis as the have a fringe of hairs on the membrane between the thighs and the tail.

The fringed myotis can grow up to 85mm in length and females grow slightly larger.  Fringed myotis in British Columbia are generally darker than species further south.

Their main diet consists of beetles and moths and they will also land on the ground to catch insects.  It is thought that the hairs help to catch insects while flying.

Golden-mantled Ground Squirrel

The golden-mantled ground squirrel can be found in the western United States and in British Columbia and Alberta in Canada.

They measure up to 29cm in length with a small brown tail.  They are yellowish-gray underneath with a golden orange brown mantle across their shoulders.  Their dorsal fur is striped light and dark.

They live in meadows, sagebrush, rocky areas  and forests.  They feed on acorns, herbs, shrubs, acorns and pine nuts.  They also like to feed on eggs, lizards, insects, young birds and carrion.

Gray Fox

The gray fox is a solitary fox that lives in the southern part of the United States and Mexico.  

Their back has a scattered combination of light and dark gray with sides of reddish-brown and an underbody of white. 

They measure from 76 to 112.5 cm and weigh from 3.6 to 7kg. Their lifespan is sixteen years in the wild and up to twenty years in captivity.

The gray fox is an omnivore and eats mice, birds, voles, rabbits, insects, corn, fruits, nuts, and berries. 

They live in dense forests, in areas with rocky terrain or thick vegetation.

Gray Wolf

The gray wolf is a social canine that lives in the northern regions of North America. 

The colors of the gray wolf vary a lot depending on their geographical location. They can be gray, brown, black, tan, or white. However, the predominant color is gray. The underbody is usually lighter, and sometimes white. 

Wolf Howling

Gray wolves measures from 1.05 to 1.60 m and weigh from 12 to 79.4 kg. 

Gray wolves are carnivores eating a wide variety of meat.  Gray wolves will eat deer, beavers, boar, mountain goats, bison, elk, moose, birds, fish, rodents, and hares. 

They live in a great variety of habitats, which include mountains, grasslands, forests, tundra, and deserts. 

Their lifespan is six to thirteen years in the wild and seventeen years in captivity.

Great Basin Pocket Mouse

The Great Basin pocket mouse measures approximately 110 mm and weighs on average 9 grams. 

The Great Basin pocket mouse can be found in British Colombia in Canada where it lives around the Columbia River Basin.  They can also be found in the western regions of the United States. 

There are several subspecies under this name. The Great Basin pocket mouse usually occupies steppes and arid shrublands. During the winter, these mice go into a state of dormancy before emerging in early Spring.

Gunnison’s Prairie Dog 

Gunnison’s prairie dog is one of five species of prairie dog. Gunnison’s prairie dogs are primarily located in the Four Corners region of the United States. 

Males are generally bigger than females. On average, these prairie dogs measure 30 to 37 cm and weigh 0.5 to 1 kg. 

The fur is yellowish with some blackish hair. The head, cheeks, and eyebrows are darker than the rest of the body. 

The main diet of prairie dogs consists of grasses, herbs, and leaves.

Hoary Bat 

The hoary bat is a nocturnal vesper bat found in parts of North America and Hawaii, where they are a native mammal.

Hoary Bat

They use echolocation for flying at night and to find food. Their color is dark brown, but the hairs have a white tip. 

They measure from 13 to 15 cm, with a wingspan measuring 40 cm, and a weight of just 20 to 35 g. The hoary bat is the largest species in Canada.

Hopi Chipmunk

Similar in appearance to the Colorado chipmunk, the Hopi chipmunk has a striped pelage on its back.  Unlike most chipmunks, the stripes are light in color with an orange to red fur.

They measure up to 24cm in length with a weight up to 60g.

The Hopi chipunk lives in rocky areas with pine trees.  They feed mainly on the seeds and nuts of these trees.  They carry their food in pouches in their cheeks to take it to storage or to eat later.  

They have a lifespan up to eight years although this can be as low as three years in the wild.

They are active in the morning and afternoon to avoid the midday heat.  They are solitary and can become aggressive with other chipmunks entering their territory.  

Hispid Cotton Rat

The hispid cotton rat can be found in the southern states of North America.  They grow up to 340 mm long with a tail up to 120mm, with a weight up to 225 grams.  

The hispid cotton rat lives in tall-grass areas, nesting in underground burrows or in clumps of grass or piles of brush above ground.  They construct globe-like nests, which are about 12 cm in diameter made up of weeds and grasses.  

They feed on plant material, but will also eat the eggs of birds that are ground-nesting.  

They are rated as least concern, due to large litters which can be up to ten but averaging five young.  They can give birth to as many as nine litters a year, with a gestation period of 27 days.

Hispid Pocket Mouse 

The hispid pocket mouse is 190 to 237 mm in length and weighs between 35 to 60 grams. This species of rodent is one of the biggest among all the pocket mice. 

They are found in the regions of the Central Plans, spanning from North Dakota to central Mexico and west of the Missouri river around the Rocky Mountains. The hispid pocket mouse can be found in rocky soils and usually avoid dunes.

Kit Fox 

The kit fox is a fox species found in the southwestern parts of the United States where they are located in Nevada, Utah, California, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas and northern and central Mexico. 

These foxes are the smallest species of canids found in North America. 

They are characterized by large ears which helps them to keep their body temperature low. On average, they weigh between 1-6 to 2.7 kilograms and reach 455 to 535 mm in body length. 

Their fur is generally gray with their tail being tipped with black. These foxes are mostly nocturnal and carnivorous. 

They hunt small animals like rats, rabbits and some reptiles such as lizards and snakes. 

Kit foxes prefer arid climates like deserts, chaparral, and grasslands.

Least Shrew 

The least shrew is from the eastern United States and southeastern Mexico. 

Their color varies from gray to brown with a lighter color on the underbody. They measure from 7 to 9 cm and weigh from 4 to 7g. 

The least shrew eats carcasses, seeds, fruits, and insects, and live in grasslands with forest edges. Their lifespan is one year in the wild and 2.6 years in captivity.

Little Brown Bat 

The little brown bat is a small North American bat. Their colors vary from light tan to dark brown, with a lighter color on its underbody. 

The little brown bat measures from 8 to 9.5 cm and weighs from 5.5 to 12.5g. 

This insectivore eats mosquitoes, moths, and beetles. The little brown bats live in most of North America. 

They will find any place to roost during the day, such as trees, caves, and rocks. In winter, this bat hibernates in caves. Their lifespan is from 6 to 7 years.

Long-legged Myotis 

The long-legged myotis is a species of vesper bat that usually inhabits the western regions of Canada and the United States. They can also be found in Mexico. 

They are the second-largest species of myotis found in the United States. Their wingspan is about 24 to 50.8 centimeters long, and their average body mass is of 7.5 grams. 

They are characterized by light-brown to chocolate brown pelage and short, rounded ears. They are also distinguishable from other bat species by the fur underside their wings, which extends to their elbows and knees.

Long-tailed Vole 

The long-tailed vole is a rodent characterized by short ears and a very long tail. Usually, they measure around 18 cm in length with an 8-10 cm long tail and weigh approximately 50 grams. 

The long-tailed vole is a rodent and can be found in different habitats, often near streams. They also live at high elevations (more than 3,500 meters above seas level), and inhabit a wide area. 

Their range extends north to east-central Alaska, the western Canadian Provinces, and south to the United States including California, Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Wyoming. 

The long-tailed voles are active all year round and are mainly diurnal.

Long-tailed Weasel 

The long-tailed weasel is a fearless, aggressive hunter. They are also known as the bridled weasel or the big stoat. 

Their color is reddish-brown with a light yellow underbody, but in cold northern regions they are completely white. 

Long-tail weasel

The long-tailed weasel measures from 23 to 35 cm and weighs from 85 to 267 g. They are carnivores and can attack animals that are twice their size. 

They eat mostly mice, voles, rabbits, chipmunks, birds, eggs, and insects. 

They live in grasslands and thin forests in sub-tropical areas with mild temperatures in the southern states of North America. Their lifespan is up to five years.

Meadow Vole 

The meadow vole is a small, mostly nocturnal rodent. They are also known as other names such as the field mouse or meadow mouse. 

Their colors vary from yellowish or reddish-brown to dark brown, and the underbody is gray. They measure about 12 cm and weigh about 43g. 

This herbivore eats grasses, weeds, grains, seeds, bark, roots, and fruits. They live in dense grasslands and thin forests in the northern part of North America (except for the most intense polar regions). 

The meadow vole is an excellent swimmer and are also good at digging holes. 

Their lifespan ranges from 2 to 16 months. Some people consider them a pest because they cause great damage to plants, and also carry similar diseases as other rodents

Meadow Jumping Mouse 

The meadow jumping mouse is a solitary and mostly nocturnal North American rodent. They can jump 8 feet or more when they are disturbed. 

Their color is light brown, with a thick dark brown stripe on its back and a white underbody. They are a small-sized rodent with very long tails and feet. They measure from 18 to 24 cm (including the tail) and weigh from 11.5 to 35 g. 

The meadow jumping mouse is an omnivore eating mostly seeds, insects, and fruits. 

The meadow jumping mouse lives mostly in grasslands, thin forests and humid areas in the northern part of North America. 

Their lifespan is less than a year in the wild, but up to five years in captivity.

Mexican Free-tailed Bat

The Mexican free-tailed bat is also referred to as the Brazilian free-tailed bat.  They are a medium-sized bat which is regarded as one of the most common species of mammals in North America. 

They tend to roost in huge numbers in a few locations. These bats tend to be typically 9 cm in length and weigh around 7 to 12 grams. 

They are characterized by wide, rounded ears which almost meet at the front of their face. Males have larger canines than females and are usually larger. 

Mexican free-tailed bats are found in most of the southern regions of the United States.

They primarily roost in caves, with some very large colonies consisting of millions of bats in Texas.

Mexican Vole

The mogollon vole is also known as the Mexican vole. They are herbivores with a diet of leaves and other vegetation. 

They are brown in color with a short tail.  Their total length is up to 14cm with a weight up to 48g.

They live in grassy openings of forests, preferring to live in old logs.  They use runways to run through tall grass.  

The mogollon vole use a nests of grass and herbs which are globe-like in appearance.  

Montane Shrew 

The Montane shrew is a species of mammal that is also known as the dusky shrew. They can be found in Alaska, Western Canada and the western areas of the United States, including Washington, Idaho, Montana, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, Oregon, Nevada, and California. 

They are about 95 to 116 mm long in total body length and weigh approximately 4.4 to 10.2 grams. 

The Montane shrew occupies vast niches of moist, grassy areas, usually river banks and meadows. 

Their habitat consists of coniferous forests, including taiga and high mountain subalpine and alpine forests. 

Montane shrews molt twice a year. Their pelage is commonly brown or gray, but the coloration depends on the elevation and the location of their niche.

Montane Vole

The montane vole can be found in the west of the United States and Canada.

They can be found at high elevation in mountainous terrain.  They prefer to live in grassy areas and meadows and can often be found near streams or lakes.  

There are at least fourteen species of montane vole recognized with  different species inhabiting different areas.

The montane vole is a herbivore but are also known to eat insects.  Montane voles are a prey species for many other animals including many birds of prey.

They grow up to 22 cm including the tail with a weight up to 85g.

Moose 

The moose is a solitary animal with huge antlers.  Moose are the largest members of the deer family. 

Their color ranges from light to dark brown. The moose is massive, measuring from 1.4 to 2.1 m in height and from 2.4 to 3.2 m in length. They weigh from 200 to 700 kg.

Moose

Moose are herbivores and eat bark, leaves, pine cones, young branches, and fruits. Moose lives in forests in the northern part of the entire world, and have a lifespan from fifteen to twenty five years.

Mountain Cottontail 

The mountain cottontail is also known as Nuttall’s cottontail.  This species of rabbit can be found in Canada and the United States. They are a small-sized rabbit which tends to measure about 35-39 cm in length and weighs approximately 0.7-1.2 kilograms. 

The feet of these rabbits are densely covered with hair. Their ears are short and rounded at the tips, with the inner parts being hairy. 

Mountain cottontails feed primarily on grasses including wheatgrass and needle-and-thread grass. 

When the temperature gets colder, and food resources are more limited, they tend to turn to more woody plants such as bark. Interestingly, this species of rabbit produces two types of fecal pellets, dry and moist. The moist ones are usually eaten by themselves.

Mountain Goat

The mountain goat is the only species of rock-goat (rupicarpine) in North America.  Mountain goats live in the Cascade Mountains, Rocky Mountains, Alaska, Washington, Idaho and the Yukon and Northwest Territories.

Mountain goats prefer rocky cliffs, slopes and meadows as their habitats.  Mountain goats prefer the safety of the cliffs to keep them away from predators.  They spend about seventy five percent of their lives on rocky cliffs.  

Mountain goats feed on the cliff faces, grazing on the vegetation.  Mountain goats are amazing climbers and spend time on cliff faces up to 60 degrees steep.

Due to their northern habitats mountain goats migrate during the winter southwards.

Mountain goats grow up to 1500 cm in length and weigh up to 136 kgs.  Males grow larger than females.

Mule Deer

The mule deer is the most common deer in the west of North America.  Mule deer can be found all down the west coast, Texas, Arizona, New Mexico and the Rocky Mountains.

Mule deer are tan or pale brown in winter with a white patch on their rump and a small tail with a black tip.

Mule deer found along the west coast are darker with a larger black tail.  West coast mule deer are also known as the black-tail.

Mule deer prefer habitats that shelter them from predators such as wolves, coyotes, bobcats and the puma.

Mule deer can weigh up to 120 kg and grow to a length of 168 cm.  Male deer are larger than female deer.

Muskrat 

The muskrat is a midsize, mostly nocturnal, semiaquatic rodent from North America. Their colors vary from brown to black, with a lighter underbody. 

Muskrats measure from 40 to 70 cm and weigh from 600 grams up  to 2 kg. Their lifespan is 3 to 4 years.

The muskrat is an omnivore and eats aquatic vegetation, farm and garden plants, roots, pondweed, fruits, vegetables, snails, salamanders, crustaceans, fish, and birds. 

Muskrat

They live in wetlands in the northern part of North America. They are considered as a pest because of the destruction it causes in the places where they live and the diseases that they can carry.

Nine-banded Armadillo 

The nine-banded armadillo is also called the long-nosed armadillo. They usually weigh between 2.5 to 6.5 kg and can reach 38-58cm in length. 

They live in various habitats from forests to more arid areas. Nine-banded armadillos do not have a strong tolerance to cold-weather but can survive in colder temperatures for several days by remaining in a burrow. 

They are mainly nocturnal and solitary animals. Nine-banded armadillos are mainly insectivores, but can sometimes eat small amphibians and reptiles. 

Unlike the three-banded armadillo, this species cannot roll itself into a ball but can jump high when disturbed. 

North American Beaver

The North American beaver can reach up to 32 kg, with 20 kilograms being the average weight. They can measure 74-90cm, excluding the tail which adds a further 25-30 cm. 

They beaver is the largest rodent in North America and are semi-aquatic. They have a transparent third eyelid allowing them to see underwater. 

Beavers play an important role in the environment and are a keystone species. They are well known for building dams, canals, and lodges. They construct dams to flood areas to obtain access to food and protection.

They live in colonies, and have orange teeth due to the amount of iron they contain.  This makes their teeth stronger than regular teeth.

Beaver teeth

The beaver is a herbivore and eats bark, cambium, roots, buds, and water plants. The North American beaver lives in forests (near water bodies) in the northern parts of North America, with a lifespan between 10 to 15 years. 

North American Porcupine 

The North American porcupine is the second-largest rodent found in North America. Their back is covered with strong quills, made of keratin. 

They can be easily recognized by quills, that are solid at the tip and base and present around all its body, except for the stomach.  The quills are used as a defense mechanism.

North American porcupines have a color that is dark brown or black with hairless feet.. They measure from 60 to 90 cm without counting the tail which measures around 14.5 up to 30 cm. They weigh from 4.5 to 18 kg.

They are herbivorous eating leaves, seeds, grass, nuts, buds, fruits, and green plants. They are often found climbing on trees to eat leaves. 

The porcupine lives mostly in forests, deserts, and grasslands in the northern part of North America, with a lifespan of about 30 years. 

This species of porcupines are endangered because due to hunting and also because of loss of habitat.

Northern Flying Squirrel 

The Northern flying squirrel is one of three flying squirrels in North America. Their habitat is coniferous and mixed coniferous forests. They live in Canada, and the United States from Alaska to Nova Scotia, North Carolina. Utah and Oregon. 

They are clumsy on the ground but efficient climbers and gliders. Flying squirrels are nocturnal with excellent vision. 

Their length reaches between 25 to 37 centimeters, and they usually weigh between 110 and 230 grams. Their fur is light brown, with a flat tail and big eyes. They also have large whiskers which they use to sense their way around at night.

Northern Grasshopper Mouse

The Northern grasshopper mouse is the largest of the three species of grasshopper mouse in North America.  

They have a weight up to 49g and a total length of 190mm including a tail up to 62mm.

The Northern grasshopper mouse has long fingers and claws which they use to grab their prey.  They are insectivores and carnivores and will use their long fingers to help eat grasshoppers and beetles. 

They also have a distinctive vocalization that sounds like a howl.  This sound can be picked up by humans.  The sound is used to convey information such as size, sex and location to other grasshopper mice.

Northern Long-eared Myotis 

The Northern long-eared myotis is a species of bat.  They use echolocation to navigate while flying. 

Their color varies from yellowish light brown to black, and measure about 8.6 cm and weigh from 5 to 8 g. 

This insectivore eats mostly moths, beetles, flies, and leafhoppers. They live in boreal forests (taiga) in the eastern, central part of North America. Their lifespan is about 18.5 years. 

They are an endangered species due to a sickness that is killing the species.

Northern Pocket Gopher 

The Northern pocket gopher weighs between 60 to 160 grams and measures between 165 to 260 mm in length. 

The Northern pocket gopher is rarely seen above ground and usually does not travel far from the entrance of its burrow. 

Their fur is gray to brown with dark spots on the ears.  Although not classed as an endangered species, many farmers contribute to the eradication of gophers with poison or traps because of the gophers destructive effect on agriculture.

Northern River Otter

The river otter is a smart, semiaquatic mammal found in the northern states.

The river otter has short, very dense fur. Their colors vary from gray to brown, with a lighter underbody. 

They measure from 66 to 107 cm and weighs from 5 to 14 kg. 

River otters are carnivores eating fish, turtles, frogs, crayfish, and insects. 

River otter

They live in aquatic habitats in the northern part of North America. Their lifespan is eight to nine years in the wild and fifteen to twenty years in captivity.

Northern Rock Mouse

Not many details are known about the Northern rock mouse.  

They are a long-eared mouse and look similar to the pinyon mouse.  They have grayish-brown fur.

Their tail is longer than the head and body combined.  They have a total length up to 20cm

Olive-backed Pocket Mouse 

The olive-backed pocked mouse measures between 125 to 143 mm, including a tail of 56 to 68 mm and weighs between 11 to 14 grams. 

The olive-backed pocket mouse is a widespread mouse found in the Great Plains of Canada and the United States. 

The name comes from its fur-color, which is a shade of dark olive-brown on the head. 

Like similar species, these mice are solitary and live mostly underground in galleries of tunnels which they dig.

Ord’s Kangaroo Rat 

The Ord’s kangaroo rat is usually 240 mm long and weighs around 200 grams. This small rodent is native to the western parts of North America, covering the Great Basin and the Great Plains. 

Ord’s kangaroo rats have a fifth toe on their back feet. The fur is golden brown on top and white on their stomach. They have a rather short tail compared to other kangaroo rats.

Pallid Bat 

The pallid bat is a species of bat found in areas ranging from western Canada to central Mexico. Their wingspan is approximately 38 to 40 cm in length, and they weigh about 14 to 25 grams. 

They are considered to be large bats, with long forward-pointing ears. Their pelage is pale at the roots and brown or black on the back with white underparts

These bats are commonly found in arid or semi-arid habitats, often in rocky areas or mountainous regions near water. During the day they roost in cracks and crevices. 

Like the majority of bats, pallid bats use echolocation to find food and travel from their roost site to foraging grounds.

Plains Harvest Mouse

The plains harvest mouse can be found in prairies and grassy fields. 

Nests consist of a construction shaped like a sphere with one entrance.

Their diet consists of flowers, seeds, herbs and insects such as weevils, moth larvae and beetles.  The plains harvest mouse does not hibernate but does put on body fat to get them through the colder winter conditions.

Many plains harvest mice live in one nest to help them to keep their body temperatures steady throughout winter.  

Plains Pocket Gopher

The Plains pocket gopher usually measures around 25-35 centimeters and weighs between 128 to 470 grams. 

The Plains pocket gophers are found along the Great North American Plains. 

Plain’s pocket gophers can run backward at the same speed they can run forward which is very unusual for any animal. 

Their diet is mainly vegetarian, eating roots and grass, and sometimes nuts. These pocket gophers are becoming rare due to the disappearance of their habitat.

Plains Pocket Mouse 

The Plains pocket mouse is a small-sized species with half of their length being made up by their long tail. Their tail can reach up to 13 cm, and they have an average total body length of 26cm. The weight of these mice is around 13 grams. 

The Plains pocket mouse can be found in North Dakota, northern Texas, Utah, southwestern Minnesota, Colorado and the Mexican state of Chihuahua. Their habitat is usually characterized by sandy soil. Plains Pocket Mice are fairly common animals.

Prairie Vole

The prairie vole is grayish-black with brownish tips to the fur.  Their underbelly is lighter and generally white or cinnamon colored.

Male and female prairie voles are about the same size with a weight up to 48g and a total length of 170mm including a tail of 40mm.

Prairie voles are one of the species that practices monogamy.

Their diet consists of plant material including leaves, seeds and stems, although they will also eat insects.  

They live in tunnels underground consisting of many runways.  Entrances have a layer of grass to disguise them.

Pronghorn

The pronghorn is a member of the antelope family and is the only species in North America.  

The pronghorn is the fastest land mammal in North America, and is only behind the cheetah as the fastest land mammal in the World.

The pronghorn can run up to 72 km p/h and rely on their speed and excellent eyesight as protection from predators.

Pronghorns have a pair of horns from which they get their name.  The horns are pronged on top of the head.  Unlike many species of deer, both male and female pronghorns grow horns.

The fur of the pronghorn is tan with black and white patches on the head and neck.  Males can be identified by a black line that runs from the ear to the jaw.

Both males and females are about the same size, with a weight of 40-60 kg and a length of about 1.5 meters.

Pygmy Rabbit 

The pygmy rabbit is one of two rabbit species in America to dig its own burrow. They are the world’s smallest leporid, weighing approximately 375 to 500 grams and measuring around 23.5 cm to 29.5 centimeters in length. Females of this species tend to be larger than males. 

These rabbits are easily recognizable from other species by their small size, short ears and lack of white fur on the tail. 

Pygmy rabbits are found in most of the Great Basin in the United States, including Montana, Utah, Nevada, and California. They are usually found in areas on deep soils with dense sagebrush which they use for shelter and food.

Raccoon 

The raccoon is a nocturnal midsize mammal.  Their color is gray, brown or black.  They have a white face with a black mask around its eyes. 

They measure from 40 to 70 cm and weigh from 5 to 26 kg. 

raccoon digging
Raccoon digging for food and grub worms in a garden with blue and purple flowers including purple coneflower

The raccoon is an opportunistic omnivore eating fruit, plants, oak nuts, insects, worms, rodents frogs, nuts, eggs, and crayfish. 

Raccoons live in forests, suburban, and urban areas in the Central and southern states of North America. The average lifespan of a raccoon is two to three years.

Red Fox 

The red fox is a midsize fox that lives in the northern region of North America. 

The color varies from light yellow to red, with dark legs, and a white underbody. They measure from 45 to 90 cm and weigh from 2.2 to 14 kg. Their lifespan is between two to five years. 

The red fox is an omnivore eating grasses, fruits, corn, apples, oak nuts, cherries, berries, mice, birds, rabbits, squirrels, crickets, grasshoppers, beetles, caterpillars, and crayfish. 

The red fox lives in forests, grasslands, mountains, deserts, and suburban areas.

Ringtailed Cat

Also known as the ringtail, the ringtailed cat is a species of the raccoon family native to North America. They are also known as the civet cat or bassarisk. 

Ringtails are small-sized mammals that can measure about 30-42 cm in body length with a tail averaging 31 to 44 cm in length. They usually weigh between 0.7 to 1.5 kilograms. 

Their fur is dark brown with light underparts. They are characterized by long whiskers and a body that resembles that of a cat. Their tail has rings of color with black and white rings. 

Ringtails are primarily nocturnal and solitary. They prefer rocky desert habitats where they feed on small vertebrates, berries and insects.

Rock Squirrel

The rock squirrel is a species of rodent native to Mexico and the southwestern regions of the United States. These squirrels are considered to be one of the largest members of the family Sciuridae. 

Their dimensions are about 53 cm in total body length for an average adult. 

Their fur is usually brown with a light-colored ring around their eyes, and long, bushy tails.

These squirrels are highly sociable, living in colonies with a dominant male and several females. These animals are primarily herbivores.

Sagebrush Vole

The only member of the genus Lemmiscus, the sagebrush vole has short legs and a short tail.  

They measure up to 14cm in length with a weight up to 40g.  

They can be found in the western United States and southern Canada where they live in brushy areas.

The sagebrush vole feeds on plant matter such as leaves, twigs and sagebrush.

Their stocky bodies are pale gray with dense fur.

Silky Pocket Mouse 

The silky pocket mouse is a species of rodent found mainly in the northern and central regions of Mexico, as well as in the southwest of the United States. 

Unlike other pocket mice, the silky pocket mouse has a rather short tail with no hairs at the tip. The total body length is shorter compared to other pocket mice, with an average length of 60 to 90mm. This species weighs just 8-9 grams. 

This mouse rarely drinks water and obtains most of the required moisture from the food it consumes. Whenever the outside temperature falls below 5C (or 41F) the silky pocket mouseallow its body to go into a state of hibernation.

Silver-haired Bat

The silver-haired bat is a nocturnal, solitary mammal from the central part of North America. They use echolocation when flying to guide them and to find food.

Their color is normally black, but can sometimes be dark brown, with gray tips to their fur.  

They measure about 10 cm and weighs from 8 to 12 g. This insectivore eats flies, leafhoppers, moths, mosquitoes, beetles, bugs and ants, which they find in forest habitats.

Their average lifespan is 12 years, and they migrate to warmer climates in winter.

Snowshoe Hare

The snowshoe hare is also called the varying hare or snowshoe rabbit, taking this the name because of the large size of the hind feet.   

They are a hare from the northern region of North America. 

The snowshoe hare lives in boreal and montane forests of North America.

They have wide paws for moving in the snow. Their feet prevent these rabbits from sinking in the snow when hopping and walking. They are covered with fur on the soles too, for protection against freezing temperature. 

Snowshoe hare

Their color is brown in summer and white in winter but always has a gray underbody. They can be distinguished by black tufts of hair on the edge of their ears and by the relatively small size of their ears compared with other hares. 

Their lifespan is five years. They usually measure about 36 to 52 centimeters and can weigh 1.3 to 1.7 kilograms as adults. 

The snowshoe hare is a herbivore and eats grass, leaves, ferns, buds, twigs, evergreen needles, small stems, and bark. They adapt their diet according to the season. They usually feed on grass, fens, and leaves during the summer and turn to twigs and bark in the wintertime.

Southern Plains Woodrat

The southern plains woodrat has gray fur with blackish tips, with a white throat, feet, and underparts.  They have a short blackish-gray tail and large ears.

They can be found in shrubby grasslands and rocky outcrops.  The southern plains woodrat build their nest in the rocky outcrops or at the base of shrubs.  The nests have several tunnel and escape roots which are either at ground level or tunneling down into the rock through fissures.  The nests are used by subsequent generations.

The southern plains woodrat grow to a length of 40cm and a weight up to 350 grams.

They rely on a diet of plants, leaves, berries, seeds, nuts and fruit which they will cache in their dens for nourishment in winter.

Southern Red-backed Vole 

The Southern red-backed vole is a mostly nocturnal, small mammal from the central part of North America. Their color is gray, with a red stripe on its back, and an underbody of gray or white. 

The Southern red-backed vole measures from 7 to 11.2 cm and weighs from 6 to 42 g. They have a lifespan of 10 to 20 months. 

This species of vole is an omnivore eating insect, grains, fruits, nuts, seeds, berries, leaves, roots, bark, fungi, and lichens. 

They live in coniferous, deciduous, and mixed forests near water bodies in southern Canada and the northern United States.

Spotted Bat 

The spotted bat is a species of western bat that can reach a wingspan of 35 cm and length of 12 cm. Their weight is on average, around 15 grams. 

They are found on cliffs in Colorado along with the Grand Canyon,  Arizona and California. They also inhabit parts of Canada and Mexico. 

They usually live in coniferous forests, deserts, marshes, and dry steppes. 

The increase in the use of pesticides (such as DDT) from the 1960s has resulted in a decline in the population of the spotted bat, but recently recoveries have been recorded in this species.

Spotted ground Squirrel

The spotted ground squirrel is a species of squirrel that is found in Mexico and the western parts of the United States, including South Dakota, Oklahoma, Texas, Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah. 

They are considered to be one of the smallest species of squirrels in the Northern hemisphere.  They generally measure about 214 mm in body length and weigh approximately 100 to 125 grams. 

These squirrels are characterized by a white-spotted back and white underparts. The rest of the body greatly varies in color and can be black, brown, gray and white. 

Spotted ground squirrels molt each year and hibernate during the winter period. These squirrels are mainly herbivorous but may consume insects from time to time.

Striped Skunk

The striped skunk is a mostly nocturnal species of skunk found in the central states of North America. 

Their color can be black, gray, or brown but always has a white stripe on their back running from head to tail. 

They measure from 52 to 77 cm and weigh between 1.8 to 4.5 kg. Striped skunks are omnivores and eat crickets, grasshoppers, beetles, caterpillars, mice, voles, eggs, and small birds. 

The striped skunk lives in open areas such as grasslands or thin forests in southern Canada, the United States, and northern Mexico. Their lifespan is up to seven years.

Thirteen-lined ground Squirrel 

The thirteen-lined ground squirrel, also known as the striped gopher, leopard ground squirrel or squinny is a species of rodent that inhabits grasslands and prairies of North America. 

The name comes from the thirteen lines (sometimes broken into spots) alternating white and brown on the back and sides of these squirrels. 

They usually measure about 170 to 297 mm in body length and weigh approximately 110 to 270 grams. Thirteen lined squirrels are diurnal and are especially active on warm days. 

They are solitary and feed on grass, weed, seeds and insects. These include caterpillars, grasshoppers, and crickets. They will also feed on mice and shrews, although this is rare.

Townsend’s Big-Eared Bat 

Townsend’s big-eared bat is a species of vesper bat found in Canada, Mexico and throughout the western regions of the United States. 

They are medium-sized bats with extremely long and flexible ears which explain the common name. Their total body length is about 10 centimeters on average, with a tail of 5 cm and a wingspan of about 28 cm. 

They require large cavities for roosting and are mainly found in abandoned buildings and mines, caves, and basal cavities of trees. 

In winter, they hibernate in dwellings which can include rocky crevices, tunnels, and spaces under loose tree bark, among others. 

Males are usually solitary, while females form maternity colonies, where they raise their pups. Hibernation occurs in tightly packed clusters which helps to maintain body temperature in the colder temperatures. They feed almost exclusively on Lepidoptera, a species of moth.

Uinta Chipmunk

The Uinta chipmunk can be found in eight states in North America based around the Great Basin in Utah.  The Uinta chipmunk can be seen in Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Utah and Wyoming.

The Uinta chipmunk is a medium-sized chipmunk, with females slightly larger than males.  They can weigh up to 74 grams with a length of 24 cm.  

The Uinta chipmunk can be found in pine, Douglas fir or juniper habitats where they live on a diet of mainly fungus.  The Uinta chipmunk is known to dig and this believed to be them looking for underground fungus.  

They will also eat insects, bird eggs and seeds.  Although they hibernate, they survive on food that they have stored rather than their body fat.

Virginia Opossum 

The Virginia opossum is the only marsupial found in North America. Their habitats can vary and are one of the species to thrive in urban areas.  They prefer living close to water sources. 

Opossum in winter

This medium-sized animal measures between 13-37cm in length and can weigh between 0.3-3.7 kg. They have rather short legs and typically gray or brownish fur. This animal is known to act as if they are dead as protection against predators.

The Virginia opossum is an omnivore eating almost anything: carcasses, garbage, plants, animals, and insects. They live in deciduous forests, farming areas, marshes, swamps, and wooded streams. Their lifespan is four years.

Western Harvest Mouse

The Western harvest mouse can be found in many habitats in North America including meadows, valleys, marshes and prairies.  They can also live in sand dunes, deserts, shrublands, and clearings in forests.

The nest can be found under logs, bushes, weeds and grasses.  Nests consist of a construction shaped like a sphere with one entrance.

Their diet consists of flowers, seeds, herbs and insects such as weevils, moth larvae and beetles.  The Western harvest mouse does not hibernate but does put on body fat to get them through the colder winter conditions where they enter a state of torpor.

The Western harvest mouse is not territorial and many can live in one nest.  This helps them to keep their body temperatures steady in winter.  

The Western harvest mouse grows up to 140 mm long with a weight up to 15g.

Western Heather Vole

The Western heather vole can be found throughout West Canada and parts of the United States.  They can be found in coniferous forests, wet meadows, willow thickets and forest edges.

The Western heather vole is a herbivore feeding on berries, seeds, fungus, lichen and shrubs.  Food is collected at night for use during the day.  They collect their food for later use storing it in their burrows. 

Nests are usually hidden under a log stump or rock.  The nest of the Western heather vole has a hidden entrance with several tunnels leading off. 

Males and females are approximately the same size with a weight up to 40g and a length of 15 cm.

Western Jumping Mouse 

The Western jumping mouse has measurements ranging between 22 to 25 centimeters in length and weighs between 17-40 grams. 

These mice might resemble the common mouse because of their dark fur. However, they are smaller and have longer legs. 

In terms of diet, they are omnivorous spending most of their time during the summer building up the fat reserves to be used during their winter when they hibernate.  

They like to live under dense grasslands or thick brushes, where they are more difficult to find by predators.

Western Small-footed Myotis

The Western small-footed bat, also known as the Western small-footed myotis is a species of vesper bat which is native to North America. 

They are relatively small in size, having a total body length of approximately 8 to 10 centimeters and a wingspan of 24 cm on average. 

They typically weigh only 4 to 5 grams, with females being larger than males. 

They are characterized by yellowish to brown fur which gets paler in the underparts. Their feet, as the common name of this species indicates, are unusually small. 

This species of bat insectivore eats moths, but also other insects like beetles, crickets, flies, and bugs. Some of the insects it hunts are considered pests. 

These bats usually roost solitarily on trees, hidden by foliage. They live in coniferous forests and generally hunt over open areas or lake. They have a very long migratory pattern. Their lifespan is about two years.

Western Pipistrelle 

The Western pipistrelle, also known as the canyon bat is a species of vesper bat which is found in the western regions of the United States. 

They are the smallest bat in the United States, with a wingspan of 190-215 mm and a body length of 62 to 80 mm. Usually, females tend to be slightly larger than males. 

Their color ranges from white to yellow to dark brown. Their faces, ears, and feet are usually blackish. These bats are found in desert areas and lowlands. 

During the day they use rock crevices as roosting sites, even if some might be found in buildings and the dense growth of sedge. 

Western pipistrelles are usually the first bat out in the evening and the last bat to come back after sunrise. Their diet consists mainly of insects.

Western Spotted Skunk 

The Western spotted skunk is a species of spotted skunk native to North America. 

They usually measure between 35 to 45 cm in body length and weigh around 336 to 734 grams. 

Males are considerably larger than females, however they are considered to be one of the smallest species of spotted skunks. 

They are characterized by a black body striped with creamy-white horizontal stripes on their back, the front of the body and the hind parts. 

They are short and rounded with a white spot between their eyes. Their tails are big and long-haired, mostly black with a white tip. 

Western skunks also possess a pair of musk glands that open inside the anus and can spray to ward off predators.

They can be found in the western regions of the United States, northern parts of Mexico and in British Columbia in Canada. 

They prefer to live in mixed woodlands, open areas and farmlands. They are primarily nocturnal animals and feed on insects, small vertebrates and berries.

White-footed Mouse

The white-footed mouse is a timid, nocturnal mammal that lives in eastern regions of North America. 

Their color is reddish-brown, with a dark, broad mark on its back and a white underbody. 

The white-footed mouse measures from 9 to 10 cm (without the tail) and weighs from 20 to 30g. 

They are omnivores eating seeds, nuts, grain, insects, fungi, and fruit. They live in warm, dry forests and semi-desert areas. Their lifespan is one year in the wild.

White-tailed Antelope Squirrel 

The white-tailed antelope squirrel measures 205 mm on average and weighs between 15 to 23 grams. 

The white-tailed antelope squirrel inhabits the arid regions of the southwestern parts of the United States and the peninsula of Baja California in Mexico. 

They are a diurnal rodent, active during the coolers parts of daylight. The white-tailed antelope squirrel has long legs with small, rounded ears. The backs are brown or gray, and the tails have the underside completely white, with a black tip.

White-tailed Deer 

The white-tailed deer is a mammal found in the central part of the American continent. In North America, they live in most of Mexico and the United States and southern parts of Canada. 

Their color is grayish-brown in the winter and reddish-brown in the summer. They have patches of white on their face, underbody, and tail. 

White tailed deer

The white-tailed deer measures from 95 to 220 cm and weighs from 45 to 68 kg. 

White-tailed deer are hebivores eating grass, corn, leaves, nuts, twigs, fruits, and fungi. 

They adapt well to different habitats and live in grasslands, forests, farmlands, and deserts. Their lifespan is four to five years.

White-tailed Prairie Dog 

The white-tailed prairie dog is typically found in the western areas of Wyoming and Colorado and some parts of Montana and Utah. They are commonly referred to as chiselers. 

The white-tailed prairie dog lives at an elevation between 5,000 and 10,000 feet, which is higher than any other species of prairie dog.

This species is threatened by humans through hunting and poisoning which has contributed to making this species listed as threatened. 

The white-tailed prairie dog measures around 35 centimeters in length and weigh 700 grams.

White-tailed Jackrabbit 

The white-tailed jackrabbit is also known as the prairie hare or white jack, and can be mainly found in the north, western regions of North America. They are also found in British Columbia, Ontario, and Alberta in Canada.

The dimensions of this species range between 56 to 65 centimeters in length, while their weight can span between 2.5 to 4.3 kilograms. 

They are solitary rabbits that live in depressions in the ground hidden by vegetation. These rabbits are nocturnal and only emerge from their nests at dusk to feed. 

In contrast to the black-tailed jackrabbit, the white-tailed jackrabbit prefers lowland habitats.

White-throated Woodrat 

The white-throated woodrat is a species of rodent which is typically found in central Mexico as well as in Utah, New Mexico, Texas and Colorado. 

These rodents grow up to 32.8 cm in length and weigh between 188 to 224 grams. 

They occupy a wide range of habitats including woodlands, high elevation plains and deserts. As with other species of woodrats, this species makes dens out of a variety of materials, using what is available to them.

Wolverine

The wolverine resembles a small bear, but is the largest member of the Mustelidae family.

They are ferocious, and have a huge amount of strength for their body size.  They are the size of medium dog, but can take down prey many times their size, such as elk. 

wolverine

They live in cold climates, with thick, oily fur which is resistant to frost.  They are dark in color, with a light mask on their face, and a bushy tail.   

They have been called the skunk-bear due to the scent glands that they use to mark their territory.

Wyoming Ground Squirrel

The Wyoming ground squirrel can be found in mixed conifer and aspen forests and woodland.  They can also be found around valley grasslands and meadows.  

They feed on a variety of insects, shrubs and grasses but forms are their primary food.  The Wyoming ground squirrel hibernates when it gets colder.  

There are three populations of the Wyoming ground squirrel in North America.  The first is in Wyoming and Colorado.  The second is in Utah, Idaho, Nevada and Oregon, and the the third population can be found in Montana.

Yellow-bellied marmot 

The yellow-bellied marmot can weigh up to 5 kilograms and usually measures between 47 and 68 cm in length. 

This marmot is also known as a rock chuck. They are a large species, and are one of the fourteen species of marmots. 

They are native to the mountainous regions of Canada and the Rocky Mountains, Mount Rainer and the Sierra Nevada. 

These animals usually inhabit areas which are above 6500 feet (or 2000 meters). Their fur is brown with a bushy tail. 

They live in colonies with a single dominant male and hibernate during the wintertime for approximately eight months.

Yellow-faced Pocket Gopher

The yellow-faced pocket gopher can reach a total length of 295 mm for males and 256 mm for females, with an average weight ranging from 216-330 grams. 

The yellow-faced pocket gopher occupies the area between the southern United States and the northern parts of Mexico. They live in deep burrows and use their nests to store food. 

Compared to other pocket gophers, the yellow-faced pocket gopher is larger and has a brownish-yellow fur. 

Their life span is short, with females living longer than males. On average females can live up to 13 months, while males usually don’t get older than seven months old.

Yuma Myotis

The Yuma myotis is a small species of bat found in western North America.  They can be found under bridges and in buildings will also make their homes in caves.  They can generally be found flying over water where they feed.

Feeding over water allows the Yuma myotis a greater diversity of insects.  The Yuma myotis eats a variety of insects including moths, beetles, mosquitoes, midges, crane flies and flies.

They measure up to 4.8 cm with a weight up to 6g.  Their wingspan is approximately 24 cm.

The Yuma myotis live in lowland habitats including forests but can generally be found around the edge of water.

Bryan Harding

Bryan has spent his whole life around animals. While loving all animals, Bryan is especially fond of mammals and has studied and worked with them around the world. Not only does Bryan share his knowledge and experience with our readers, but he also serves as owner, editor, and publisher of North American Mammals.

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