Wolves have been described as being able to eat anything in the wild, but I wanted to find out if this was true.
Wolves are carnivores and will feed on everything from moose to small earthworms. Wolves will eat small mammals as well as garbage discarded by humans.
I wanted to find out a bit more about what they eat and what their preferred food is. I have put together this article, along with a table showing the information I have found.
What Does a Wolf Eat?
The complete list of the diet of a North American wolf consists of the following.
Moose, elk, deer, caribou, buffalo, sheep, goat, wild horse, wild boar, rabbit, hare, marmot, gopher, beaver, porcupine, raccoon, rat, mole, shrew, muskrat, woodchuck, mouse, nuts, insects, fruits, berries, earthworms, human garbage, carrion, birds and grass.
Diet and Location
Studies from the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, National Park Service, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Yukon Fish and Wildlife Branch have provided us with data on the primary prey and secondary prey of wolves in North America.
|Location||Primary Prey||Secondary Prey|
|United States of America|
|Yukon Territoriers||Moose||Dall Sheep|
In Alaska, when the calves of caribou are born, the wolves change their focus from sheep to these young deer. It has been noted that the deaths of sheep from predation by wolves are almost non-existent in this period.
Jasper National Park, in Alberta, Canada, the diet of wolves in the area will change once mule deer have their calves. The wolves change their lifestyle of feeding on the adult mule deer to completely focus on the young.
Caribou migrate North for the summer, these new grounds providing nutritious foods to help new calves and other caribou grow healthy before winter.
Wolves that would normally have fed on these caribou have to change their diet. Their diets change from caribou to ground squirrels and mice.
In Alaska, when the caribou migrate North, a study showed that mice and other rodents made up 26 percent of the wolf’s diet during these summer months.
Beavers are another source of food that is important to the wolf at these times. In northern and central Canada, beavers make up a large portion of the total diet of wolves that are hunting alone, while trying to find a mate. A beaver is the ideal size of rodent for the wolf.
Wolves also enjoy eating fish. In Alaska, wolves catch and eat salmon. They do not just scavenge carcasses left behind by other animals but fish them from rivers and streams.
The wolves target fish that are in tidal pools and shallow water. It has been noted that when they are full of salmon, they will bite the heads off and eat these. The fat from salmon can help fatten up the pups, and this can increase their chances of survival over the winter.
Wolves are great at fishing and hunting, but they also get food by scavenging other animals kills. In Algonquin Park in Ontario, Canada, studies showed that out of thirty moose carcasses, twenty-six had died of natural causes.
Only four of the thirty carcasses had been killed by wolves, although many wolf researchers said that this was difficult to determine, and did not agree.
Want to know how wolves communicate with each other. I have written an article which you can find here.
How Much Does a Wolf Eat Per Day?
A wolf can eat between five and twelve pounds of food per day, but some studies show wolves eating up to almost fourteen pounds of moose per day during winter. Another wolf was seen to devour nineteen pounds of meat from one meal.
However, they do not eat every day. A wolf can last for a few days without feeding. Some studies showed wolves spending up to twelve days in between feedings.
When they come across a large carcass, or when they bring down a large animal themselves, they can stay with the carcass for many days, filling themselves up before laying around bloated.
In a study in Alaska, only a small percentage of their time was shown to be feeding.
|Sleeping or resting||48.8%|
|Walking or running||34.6%|
Do Wolves Cache Their Kills?
Wolves, as well as some other mammals, do cache their kills away from the kill site. These caches can be as far as half a mile away.
The animals are stored underground, dug up by the wolves using their front feet. Once the meat is inside, the wolf uses its nose to replace the dirt. Caching is more popular in the colder northern and Arctic territories.
Caching is quite common for mammals, and scientists believe that this is not just to keep the food for later times. Scientists believe that this behavior is used to distract them from the memories of the killing, which can be stressful for them.
Ever wondered which species of the wolf live in North America. I have written an article here.
How Much Do Wolves Drink?
Wolves depend on their prey for a lot of their water intake. Wolves generally need between a quarter to three-quarters of a gallon a water per day.
The amount of extra water they need per day does depend on the climate they are in, the size of animals they have recently eaten, and also the moisture content of the animal.
Moisture is also extracted from other food sources. Fruits such as apples and pears, insects, earthworms, and berries including blueberries and raspberries all contain moisture that the wolf can extract.
What Do Wolves Need To Survive?
As with many other animals and mammals, wolves need fat, protein, and carbohydrates to thrive and survive. The food that a wolf eats is generally high in fat and protein. However, they are very low in carbohydrates, with a ratio of 54:45:1.
Wolves will meet their nutritional requirements not from one meal, but over time. Wolves will seek out certain nutrients if their body is telling them they need it.
Wolves, along with eating carrion, also eat feces. This contains billions of living and dead bacteria. The bacteria give them essential fatty acids, minerals, antioxidants, fiber, enzymes, vitamins, and an excellent source of protein.
For more information on wolves, I have compiled 101 facts which you can find here.