The bison is regarded as one of the most recognizable animals in North America. Before the 1800s, bison were found in many millions in the Great Plains of the United States but were almost extinct by the late 1880s.
Man hunted bison in enormous numbers for the cost of their hides. They were also hunted to reduce railroad problems and remove a significant food source from the Native Americans.
Bison were slaughtered in unbelievably huge numbers. Please read on if you want to know why bison almost went extinct.
Bison are large wild animals that belong to the genus Bison and subfamily Bovinae. Today, there are only two surviving bison species. The American Bison is the largest and most populous of the two species.
Many confuse bison and buffalo, with some calling the American bison a buffalo. However, buffalo live in South Asia and Africa and are a different species.
The War On The Native Americans
Following the Civil War, land designated to Native Americans was far from their primary food source of bison. Many natives were forced away from their reservations, causing problems with local settlers and wagon trains passing the area.
All parts of the bison were used by Native Americans and were a primary food source. The military wanted to eliminate the threat of Plains Indians and decided to take away their food source. Without a food source, natives would be forced to live on reservations.
The military realized they had to take away their food source to control them. Native Americans had to rely on rations from the government to survive, effectively taking away their freedom.
Many bison were killed on behalf of the U.S. military, with the meat left to rot so that the natives could not use them as food.
Another reason why bison nearly went extinct is that the railway authorities wanted to reduce their population.
Bison were a threat to the booming locomotive business as they caused collisions. By thinning the population, the risks were reduced. With trains not efficient at braking, bison could cause lots of damage.
Train tracks often cut through mountains and hills. Herds of bison would use these cuts in cold areas to take shelter, delaying trains for several days.
Another reason the railroads caused a dramatic decline in the bison population was to feed their workers. Some railway companies hired hunters to kill bison to provide their workers with the meat.
With the increase in trains, buffalo hunting became more effortless. Hunters would sit on top of the train roofs while the trains slowed down to the bison herd’s speed.
Hunters would then be able to shoot the bison from the train. With more hunters rapidly arriving, bison numbers dwindled in the areas around railway tracks.
Bison hides were expensive and one of the main reasons many started hunting the animal.
Many professional hunters were given instructions and paychecks from government and railroad authorities.
Hunters would kill as many bison as possible, with some stating that the only reason they would stop was if the people skinning could not keep up.
Easy To Hunt
Due to how bison roam, hunters found that they were easy to kill. Bison are slow, lumbering animals. Although they can attack, they are not as dangerous as a big cat. Bison were easy to hunt, allowing hunters easy pickings.
When a bison dies, others will gather around the body. With this behavior, vast amounts of bison were dispatched efficiently and quickly.
In North America, the bison population dropped drastically because of increased ranching and farming activities. In the 18th century, there was a massive increase in human activity. Humans cleared trees when moving into these areas, reducing some of the bison’s native habitat.
Many people hunted these animals for their meat, but there were many industrial uses for their hides, hooves, and bones.
Non-indigenous hunters practiced hunting in huge numbers. With such a demand in the market, the bison population decreased very quickly.
Hunting increased further as the demand for bison tongues and their hides increased. Most hunters would cut out the tongue, remove the leather, and leave the rest of the body to decay, wasting the enormous amount of meat.
There was also an increased demand for the bones. When bones were needed, the bodies were left in the heat to rot.
After the bison had decayed completely, the hunters would come for their bones shipped to the east in large numbers.
As social changes came with the European-American arrivals to the country’s west, more advanced hunting tactics and weapons were used.
This meant that hunting these big animals became more accessible and faster. A single hunter could kill almost 50 Bison in a day.
History of Bison
Before inhabitants of the United States started hunting these animals, it is claimed that more than 100 million bison roamed North America.
In the 19th century, during the century of the Lewis and Clark expeditions, people from the west started settling in the U.S. At this time, there was a significant increase in hunting, which decreased bison numbers.
Before people settled, bison roamed most of the U.S., Canada, and Mexico. Many people expected that in the 20th century, the slaughter would reduce, but this was not the case.
People continued to hunt bison until they were eliminated from several areas, including the whole of Mexico.
Due to human activities, these animals disappeared from all areas east of the Mississippi River. The slaughter of these animals continued until 1830, and by 1880, herds in most places were almost extinct.
How Many Bison Are Left In North America?
According to statistics, there are 500,000 bison in the U.S. There are approximately 5,000 individuals found in Yellowstone.
Due to government efforts, bison numbers have increased significantly, with the population expected to rise further.
In the 18th century, about 30 million bison were in North America. Their numbers reduced after the mass slaughter that began in the 1800s.
Are Bison Endangered?
On the IUCN Red List, bison are not classed as endangered. However, they are classed as near threatened.
The government is taking action to save the species. Bison are threatened mainly by genetic diversity, human activity, and habitat loss.
Are There Any Pure Bison Left?
There were only two pure American bison known to exist in North America until recently. Through a recent study, it was found that there was another herd in Utah’s Henry Mountains. These bison are believed to be truly wild and disease-free.
The Yellowstone Park Bison is also known to be genetically pure, with no evidence of significant hybridization with cattle.
What Were The Solutions?
During the 1800s, most societies were not educated on the need for animal preservation. Most people didn’t care about bison during the 1800s except for their hides and meat.
Several organizations and people, including Buffalo Bill Cody, pleaded with the public to save this species. Buffalo Bill was the bison hunter who claimed he could protect the species.
Despite his complaints and efforts, bison were not protected until the early years of the 20th century. In the 20th century, most people had the necessary education, and more organizations came forward to save the species.
In the 20th century, a herd was preserved in Montana and another in South Dakota to protect the animals, keeping them from extinction.
Bryan Harding is a member of the American Society of Mammalogists and a member of the American Birding Association. Bryan is especially fond of mammals and has studied and worked with them around the world. Bryan serves as owner, writer, and publisher of North American Nature.