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Which Mammals Are Monogamous?

Humans are one of the only mammals that stay together through long periods, sometimes whole lifetimes. I wanted to examine which other mammals practice monogamy and how it benefits them.

There are only 3-5% of all species of mammals that are monogamous. These include the gray wolf, some species of bats, foxes, beavers, and prairie voles.

If you want to know what types of monogamy there are and why they choose this lifestyle, please read on.

What Is Monogamy?

The zoological definition of monogamy is ‘the habit of having only one mate.’

In mammals, monogamy is the mating couple remaining together through several breeding seasons.  This may not be a lifetime relationship, but it does cover a large portion of their lifespan.  If one of the pair dies,  the one remaining may mate with a new individual.

For mammals that do not have long-term relationships, monogamy can be defined as mating for the breeding season, with the male staying with the female after mating and during the rearing of offspring.

What are the Different Types of Monogamy?

There are two types of monogamy in the animal kingdom.  These are genetic monogamy and social monogamy.

In social monogamy, male and female mammals cohabit for the sole purpose of increasing their survival chances and the survival of their offspring. The pair live together, cooperating in their search for food and shelter. 

They also take care of their young ones together. The two animals take part in paternal care through feeding, grooming, carrying, and defending the offspring.

Social Monogamy

Social monogamy does not guarantee sexual faithfulness between male and female partners. In most cases, the two individuals will stay together but will mate with others. However, conflicts may arise as a result of infidelity.

Genetic Monogamy

Genetic monogamy is the opposite of a social monogamous relationship. In a genetically monogamous relationship, the male and female do stay faithful to each other.  Once they find their partner, they will stay together, mating for life. 

Although some mammals are monogamous, it has been estimated that only about 3-5% of mammals practice monogamy.

There are also instances in nature where the male guards the female to make sure no other individual breaks this bond.  This protection ensures that the female does not mate with any other individuals, although this may not qualify as monogamy. 

However, it does explain why some species stay together for at least as long as the gestation period.

Why do Some Species of Mammal Stay Monogamous?

Many mammals invest considerable time and energy in raising their young.  Many males will not raise offspring from another male, so they will stay faithful to their partners, ensuring that their chosen female will birth only his offspring.

Which species of mammals are monogamous?

Gray Wolf

Gray wolves are known to form alpha couples that stay together for life. A gray wolf pup is already mature and considered an adult at 2. They leave the pack searching for a new life, new territory, and finding a partner. Wolves are highly social and live in groups. A group consists of an alpha male and his female partner.

In gray wolves, only the alpha male and female mate produce offspring to grow the pack. The alpha male is in charge of the group and decides the breadth of their hunting grounds.

They also lead the pack to new destinations. The dominant pair produce a litter of pups every year. A lone wolf in the wild is most likely looking for a partner.

Find out why wolves howl here in this article I have written.

California Mice

The California mice are a species of rodents that originated in California and Mexico. These little creatures form pairs once they reach sexual maturity. The bonded pairs live together, mating for life.

Both males and females tend to be territorial and work together to defend their nest. The males are more aggressive towards any other males. This behavior is a way of scaring off the competition female and can also be seen as showing dominance. 

The California mice depict both types of monogamy, social and sexual. This species of mice cannot mate with any unfamiliar individual.

They only mate with their partners, and once the female gets pregnant, she gives birth to a litter of pups. The waste typically consists of two dogs, but the bonded pair can produce up to 6 litters in a year. 

The male actively takes care of the young ones, with the male doing as much work rearing the pups as the female.

Prairie voles

Monogamous relationships are often a rare occurrence for mammals in the wild. Most male mammals will mate, leaving the female to care for the offspring independently. Prairie voles have proven otherwise by being entirely monogamous and loyal to each other.

Prairie voles are thought to be genetically programmed to have long-term mating partners. After finding their partners, the male and females form a strong bond. The male first courts the female.  Soon after, she will go into estrus and then mate.

According to some studies, oxytocin and vasopressin induce bonding in the prairie voles. The vasopressin hormone is released when a prairie vole gets a partner and mates.

This hormone activates the receptors in specific parts of the brain that evoke feelings of pleasure or reward. The other hormone, oxytocin, is believed to foster social bonds, maternal bonding, and childbirth.

The monogamous prairie voles have a higher level of receptors for vasopressin and oxytocin hormones. Once the pair mates, their brains are channeled into associating pleasure and the reward of mating only with a particular partner. This is the reason that prairie voles develop such solid and lifelong bonds.

The male prairie vole stays around throughout the pregnancy and is actively involved in parenting once the young are born.


Beaver couple

Beavers are another species of mammals that spend their life with only one partner. When they are not busy restructuring and engineering the landscape, beavers look for their long-term mate.

Beavers live in colonies that a monogamous male and female create. The offspring the couple produces adds to the settlement. A settlement typically consists of a monogamous couple, young babies, and older kits born the previous year.

The young kits are ready to leave the colony upwards from two years old.  At this time, they will look to find their monogamous mate.

Beavers will pair but are not entirely faithful to their mates. Once in a while, they will mate with other individuals. If death occurs and a beaver partner dies, the living beaver will seek a new mate.

Beavers are great for the environment. Please find out more in this article I have written.

Sea Otters

Sea otters are considered one of the most romantic mammals because they are often seen holding hands. They have hands, so they don’t drift apart or lose each other, but it can also be interpreted as a strong social bond.

Aside from being exceptionally social creatures, sea otters partner with one other mate for life. The monogamous couple forms a family group consisting of them and their offspring.

They do everything together, including traveling, playing, and hunting. While many species of monogamous mammals live together, sea otters have separate male and female territories.

Otters mate every year. The male otter approaches the female and shows interest. The female will then consent by playing and rolling around with her partner. The male might bite a female’s nose to portray his courtship interests.

If you want to know why otters hold hands, I have written an article you can find here.

Gray Fox

Like the gray wolves, the gray fox is monogamous and mates with one partner his entire life. The monogamous pairs breed once every year during the breeding season.

Gray foxes are different from other species because they do not associate with their mates unless it is the breeding season or raising newborn kits. At times other than these, the adult foxes are solitary, preferring to stay alone. 

After a female gray fox gives birth, its partner will help raise the kits. The male will also groom them while protecting them from predators.  While the female is nursing, the male partner heads out and forages for food. Once the young ones are old enough to leave the den, the family group disperses.


Monogamy is not a popular lifestyle for mammals, but coyotes are a species that seems to enjoy having only one mating partner. Coyotes remain faithful to their mates even when the population is high.

Males stay by the side of their partners, playing an active role in parenting the pups. A coyote couple together establishes its territory, working to defend it. They help each other build their den or find a suitable place where the puppies will be born. 

Coyotes are very affectionate towards each other. When the female is pregnant, the male mate goes hunting and brings back food. After birth, both parents protect and groom the pups.

Red Fox

The red fox practices social monogamy. There is a bonding between the males and females, but it only lasts as long as the breeding season. Furthermore, red foxes are not committed to their partners. A male dog can mate with several other estrous females, and a female red fox might copulate with several males.  Both will stay around each other to help protect and raise the kits.

Monogamy is rare in mammals, and this is not an exhaustive list of species.  However, this gives an insight into the types of monogamy that mammals experience.

Ever wondered if all mammals are warm-blooded? Find out here in this article I have written.