Loons are aquatic birds known as excellent divers and can dive to 60m (200 feet). They can keep submerged for as long as several minutes, although most dives last up to a minute.
There are five species of loons, and all can be found in the U.S. and Canada. These are the red-throated loon, Pacific loon, common loon, yellow-billed loon, and Arctic loon.
The position of their legs makes them excellent swimmers, and their webbed feet are used as paddles. Diving is propelled by their feet only, although they will occasionally use their wings to maneuver.
Loons can change their specific gravity to swim low in the water. This is achieved by expelling air from their lungs and compressing their plumage.
Loons feed on fish, and their bills are excellent for this. A loons bill is shaped differently from ducks or geese. Their accounts are sharply pointed and are never hooked at the tip.
Loons spend their time on the water; in summer, they spend time on lakes, and in winter, they prefer coastal waters.
Due to their legs being set back on their body, they are not suited for life on land and have trouble standing. Moving around on the ground, they either push themselves along on their breast or are semi-erect.
Loons have plumage that is waterproof and insulating to allow them to stay in the water.
Modern loons are much smaller than their ancestors, who stood up to 2 meters tall in the Upper Cretaceous period. However, they still closely resemble the toothed Hesperonis regalis, a large-toothed bird.
Loons can fly, although most species cannot take off from land. They generally need a long lake to take off, but once in the air can fly at speeds of 110 km/h (70mph). Loons cannot pass all year, but they become flightless after molting their flight feathers.
Birds are diverse in size, color, diet, and other ways. Please find out more in this article I wrote.
The red-throated loon is the smallest species, measuring 21-23 inches (53-58 cm). They get their name from their rusty-red neck. The red-throated loon is the only loon that does not have the checkerboard back in summer. They have a gray head with a striped hind neck and nape. During the winter, the red-throated loon is noticeably grayer than other species of loons. Their bill is held uptilted.
The red-throated loon can be found along coastal and tundra in the north as high as Alaska and spend the winter southward along the Pacific and Atlantic coasts. They can also be seen along the southern shores of the Great Lakes. In summer, they breed on small lakes and feed on larger lakes or at sea.
The red-throated loon generally gives birth to 2 olive-brown eggs, speckled brown or black. Their nest is made of vegetation. Both males and females share incubation duties, which last from 24 to 29 days.
The red-throated loon can be seen in smaller water areas due to its short take-off. The red-throated loon can be heard cackling and wailing.
The Pacific loon measures between 23-27 inches (58-68 cm). Like all other species except the red-throated loon, the Pacific loon has a chequered back. They have a striped neck, a black throat, and a gray crown. Their crown becomes darker in winter and extends further down the sides of the face below the eye. They are the darkest of all species of loons in winter. Unlike the common loon in winter, the Pacific loon has a white patch on its fear flank.
The Pacific loon can be found throughout Alaska, preferring to winter along the Pacific coast of North America. During the summer, they can be found in large lakes.
They breed between May and June, laying two olive-brown eggs spotted with black. Their nests consist of a mass of vegetation that can be found close to the water’s edge. Their nests are distinguishable by rising out of the water. Incubation is shared by both the male and female for 29 days. The Pacific loon makes a sound like a loud wailing.
The common loon is a duck-like bird that measures between 27-32 inches (68-81 cm). They have a checkered back but can be identified by their black head in summer, with a greenish gloss. During the winter, their back changes to a barred gray, with tips of gray. Their bill is black and is held horizontally. In winter, the white from their neck can extend above the eye.
The common loon prefers lakes in summer, where they breed between May and June. They take to coastal waters in winter. They spend their winters on the Canadian and the United States coasts, extending down to the Gulf coast.
Both parents share time looking after the eggs incubating, which takes up to 29 days. They usually have two olive eggs with brown spots. Nests are typically made close to the shore, although they can also lay their eggs on bare ground.
The common loon is not a colonial bird, and a lake is usually home to one pair. Large lakes may have two or more teams.
The common loon can be heard, especially during the summer. They make a wailing cry sound that is resonant. They have been described as maniacal, thrilling, and blood-curdling. They have a laughing tremolo, a yodel, and a wail.
The yellow-billed loon is the only loon with a yellow beak and can be easily recognized with this feature. Although they are slightly larger than the common loon at 33-39 inches (84-99 cm), their yellow bill identifies them throughout the year. Their account is large and looks uptilted, although it is the lower part that upwards-angled
Like most other loon species, they have a checkered back in summer, but in winter, they have a gray, barred back. Their head has a purplish gloss, with white patches on their throat and sides of the neck.
The yellow-billed loon can be found on tundra freshwater lakes, ponds, and rivers in summer and in more coastal areas such as bays and inlets in winter. They breed in the Canadian Arctic before heading down through Alaska onto Canada’s west coast in the winter.
The yellow-billed loon can be found in more northern regions than the common loon, with minimal overlap in their ranges.
The incubation lasts between 27 to 29 days, and the male and female look after the eggs. They generally lay two eggs, which are brownish-olive and spotted with brown.
The Arctic loon looks similar to the common loon, but they have a gray crown and hindneck. They also have long white streaks down their neck and are slightly smaller. In winter, they become darker, with a dark gray above and white underparts. They have a straight bill.
The Arctic loon can be found in summer, frequenting freshwater lakes both inland and near the coast. They can be seen from Alaska and across the east into Canada. They can be found in winter, mainly along the Pacific coast, down as far as Baja California.
Their incubation lasts about 29 days, and they lay two greenish-olive eggs with black spots. They build their nests from a mass of vegetation and mud close to the shore.
The Arctic loon can be heard making many different sounds. These can include croaks, growls, yelps, and long wailing noises. A kwuk-kwuk-kwuk can be heard during flight.
For more information on loons and other birds of North America, I recommend the following field guides.
Bryan Harding is a member of the American Society of Mammalogists and a member of the American Birding Association. Bryan is especially fond of mammals and has studied and worked with them around the world. Bryan serves as owner, writer, and publisher of North American Nature.