While up North recently, I came across some Caribou that had large antlers. I was told they were female, which surprised me as I thought only male deer had antlers.
Antlers are normally only found on male deer, but Caribou (Reindeer) of North America can grow antlers on the female and the male. In other species of deer, the female can grow antlers if they have higher-than-normal testosterone levels.
I wanted to research why males have antlers and find out why female Caribou are the only species to grow antlers regularly.
Why Do Deer Grow Antlers?
To Attract A Mate
The main reason that deer grow antlers and one of the reasons that it is the male of the species that grow them is to attract a female deer for mating.
When the antlers are growing during mating season, the female deer will be shown a display from the male, with each male trying to become the dominant male.
Males will use their antlers for sparring with each other. They will also use their antlers as weapons to other deer to establish their dominance and compete for a female mate.
They also use the antlers to rub trees to show off their dominance to other males. The males with the largest antlers are more likely to achieve the highest fertilization success and more likely to obtain mates due to their dominance and competitiveness.
It is unknown whether this is due to the result of the display, male to male fighting, or due to the size and shape of the antler as this changes with some deer species.
The antlers are useful to protect the deer against predators and other deer.
Sometimes when fighting other deer, the antlers can lock themselves together, causing the deer to starve to death.
Deer do not eat meat and are herbivores eating fruits, nuts, and acorns when available.
The antlers can be used to knock down the fruit from trees. They also use their antlers to knock down acorns and nuts when in season.
Antlers can get very hot in the summer and can use their antlers in various ways to help them cool down and relax.
The deer can use the antlers to create depressions in the mud or dirt, allowing them to lie in or roll in to cool down, relax, and keep insects off.
How does A Deer Grow Antlers?
The antlers grow from two base points on top of the deer’s head. These two points are called pedicles, and the antlers are bone tissue structures.
The velvet, which is a soft tissue, covers the antlers and feeds nutrients to the growing structure whilst growing. The velvet contains arteries and veins, which are used to feed the nutrients.
Testosterone is needed to grow the antlers, so the male deer is generally the only one in the species with antlers.
Testosterone in male humans plays a huge role in developing reproductive tissues and promotes characteristics such as bone and muscle mass.
The testosterone in the male deer is very similar and plays a key role in the deer finding a mate.
Why do Some Female Deer Grow Antlers?
Although the male buck produces testosterone, which is essential for antler growth, some female deers produce this.
An antlered doe, although rarely occurs because of an imbalance in the hormones that cause higher levels of testosterone to be present. There are also some
Flinn said an antlered doe occurs because of a hormone imbalance that causes higher male testosterone levels to be present, causing antlers to grow.
Some antlered does turn out to be hermaphrodites having both male and female sex organs, although these are rare with estimates between 1 – 1000 to 1 – 5000 being cited.
There are also deer, which have rare genetic defects that cause a set of antlers to grow. These antlers do not grow from pedicels but the skull plate inside.
These defects are permanent antlers and do not shed like other deers. It has been estimated that one female in every 20,000 does have small antlers by the Maryland Department of Natural Resources.
These antlers do not grow from pedicels but from the skull plate inside. These defects are permanent antlers and do not shed like other deers.
It has been estimated that one female in every 20,000 does have small antlers by the Maryland Department of Natural Resources.
Which Species of Deer Grow Antlers?
The deer native to North America all have antlers. These two species of deer native to North America are the whitetail deer and mule deer, and a subspecies of the mule deer, the Pacific coastal blacktail, also grows antlers.
The elk, Caribou, and moose all have antlers, with the moose having the largest antlers. Antlers are grown from the age of one year old.
Are Antlers the same as Horns?
Whereas other North American mammals such as Bison, antelopes, goat, sheep, and cattle have horns, these are not the same as the antlers that deers grow.
Horns are composed of the same material as fingernails and hair, keratin on the outside, and inside, they are bone. Whereas horns grow from the base upwards, antlers grow from the tip.
Another difference between horns and antlers is that antlers are shed annually, whereas horns are not. Antlers are deciduous and are shed annually and grown each year anew.
The hairy covered small bumps on a baby fawn’s head are the pedicels, not antlers.
Do Deer Shed Their Antlers Annually?
High levels of testosterone during the summer slows the growth of the antler. The velvet is constricted by the veins and arteries and cut off the blood supply to the antlers.
In early September, the velvet dries up almost completely and sheds, leaving the bony structure for the upcoming mating season in Autumn.
Once the mating season has finished, the deer shed their antlers between December and March.
The process does not hurt the animal and can take between 2 to 3 weeks. Between the pedicles and the antler, the tissue slowly disintegrates, causing them to come away gradually and then eventually fall off.
The deer will not have to wait long as new antlers will grow in the spring to prepare for a new mating season.
The length of time that a deer keeps his antlers before they shed depends upon his general nutrition and genetics.
Do Antlers Indicate Health Concerns?
The number of points on a deers antler is called the tine, and the amount can depend upon his health, genetics, how well he has fed during the winter, and his age.
Antlers do not always grow the same each year with different sizes caused by the health of the deer and his food supply.
Because of damage over time from general wear and fighting, it is quite common to see deer with antler points that have been blunted or even broken off completely.